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FRANKLIN COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, June 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with the largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Franklin County, North Carolina (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 922) reportedly includes a total of 7,076 slaves. This transcription includes 104 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Franklin County, accounting for 4,162 slaves, or about 59% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 501 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Franklin County, the number of slaves they held in the County, the District shown on the enumeration and the first page number on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the numbers rubber stamped in the upper right corner of every other page of the census, with the intervening pages being reported here with a B added to the number of the preceding page. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In North Carolina in 1860 there were 311 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,184 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber, though not specifically looking for such named slaves, did not notice any such information while doing this transcription, except for 100 year old female black “servant” Prissy, held by Tolliver Terrell on page 216. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Franklin County population included 6,465 whites, 566 “free colored” and 7,076 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased about 2.5% to 6,633, while the “colored” population had decreased about 1.8 % to 7,501. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 15,993 whites, about a 2.5 times increase, while the 1960 total of 12,718 “Negroes”was about 1.7 times more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber did not consider any changes to County boundaries, such as the taking of part of Franklin County in 1881 for formation of Vance County. Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in the same County? Charleston County, South Carolina saw an increase in colored population of about 24,000 between 1860 and 1870, so possibly that is where some went, even though the overall colored population in South Carolina remained about the same in 1870 as it was in 1860. Between 1860 and 1870, the North Carolina colored population increased by about 31,000, to approximately 392,000, an 8% increase, with these Counties being some that showed significant increases (from around 10% to 50%): Craven; Edgecombe; Granville, Mecklenberg; New Hanover, Wake, Warren and Wayne. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore possible places of relocation for colored persons from Franklin County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); Florida, up 29,000 (46%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ALFORD, Eli, 20 slaves, Galloway page 185B

ALSTON, Alfred, 50 slaves, Harris page 205

ALSTON, Thos. N. By his overseer, 108 slaves, Harris page 218

BRANCH, Wm. J., 90 slaves, Harris page 216B

BRODIE, Samuel, 34 slaves, Harris page 214B

CLIFTON, T. T., 24 slaves, Harris page 220

COOK, Jones?, 42 slaves, Galloway page 187B

COOLEY, Jacob, 25 slaves, Dunn’s page 178B

COPPEDGE, Wm. D., 50 slaves, Harris page 203B

CRUDUP, E. A., 53 slaves, Dunn’s page 179

DAVIIS, Owen, 36 slaves, Harris page 214

DAVIS, A. H., N. Massenburg Exr. Of, 67 slaves, Harris page 221B

DAVIS, Dr. Thos., 42 slaves, Harris page 206

DAVIS, Isaac, 26 slaves, Harris page 213B

DAVIS, John G., 66 slaves, Harris page 219

DAVIS, Wm. K., 20 slaves, Harris page 219

EDGERTON, Charles J., 47 slaves, Galloway page 189

FOSTER, Dr. P. S.?, 42 slaves, Harris page 211

FOSTER, Elizabeth, 50 slaves, Harris page 211B

FOSTER, Mariah, 24 slaves, Harris page 204

GILL, Robert, 24 slaves, Harris page 212B

GREEN, Dr. Wm., 56 slaves, Harris page 220B

GREEN, John, 54 slaves, Franklinton page 180

GREEN, Wm. O., 45 slaves, Galloway page 186B

HARRIS, Cyrus, 25 slaves, Harris page 195

HARRIS, James, 24 slaves, Galloway page 186B

HARRIS, Samuel, 53 slaves, Harris page 192

HARRIS, W., 34 slaves, Harris page 222

HARRIS, Wm. T., 23 slaves, Harris page 219B

HAWKINS, Mrs. J. D., 40 slaves, Harris page 212B

HILL, Daniel S. Owner Louisburg NC, Andrew Conn overseer, 37 slaves, Galloway page 191B

HILL, Danl. S., 75 slaves, Harris page 208B

HOLDEN, Benj., 34 slaves, Franklinton page 180B

HOLDEN, Richd., 21 slaves, Franklinton page 180B

JEFFREYS, Robt. W. & two others, W. Jeffreys for, 21 slaves, Galloway page 192B

JEFFREYS, William, 32 slaves, Galloway page 192B

JOHNSON, Elizabeth, 74 slaves, Harris page 209B

JOHNSON, Wood T., 71 slaves, Harris page 201

JONES, Jordan F., 26 slaves, Harris page 200

KEARNEY, Jos. Owner Franklinton NC, Wm . Marion overseer, 28 slaves, Franklinton page 181B

LEWIS, David M., 38 slaves, Galloway page 188B

LITTLEJOHN, Joseph B., 48 slaves, Harris page 211

MALONE, Dr. Ellis, 34 slaves, Harris page 213B

MANN, Joseph B., 45 slaves, Harris page 196

MARTIN, W. K., 23 slaves, Franklinton page 180

MASSENBURG, N. B., 46 slaves, Harris page 202B

MAY, Willie & Henry, 24 slaves, Galloway page 189B

MCKNIGHT, Asa?, 80 slaves, Galloway page 188

MITCHELL, Leroy, 28 slaves, Harris page 215

MITCHENOR?, Festus, 30 slaves, Galloway page 185

MOON, Wm. A.?, 26 slaves, Harris page 196

MOSES, Amanda, 25 slaves, Harris page 196B

NEAL, Jno., 68 slaves, Harris page 208B

NEAL, John owner Lousisburg NC, Wm. B. Uzzle? Overseer, 63 slaves, Harris page 194B

NICHOLSON, Lucind F., 21 slaves, Franklinton page 182B

PERRY, A. S. Owner Louisburg NC, 72 slaves, Galloway page 190B

PERRY, Allen C., 25 slaves, Galloway page 187

PERRY, Burnel, 32 slaves, Harris page 214

PERRY, Charles, 33 slaves, Harris page 210

PERRY, Couvina?, 42 slaves, Harris page 218B

PERRY, Dr. A. S., 66 slaves, Harris page 206B

PERRY, Dr. Samuel, 37 slaves, Harris page 215B

PERRY, Dr. A. S., 88 slaves, Harris page 204B

PERRY, Joshua?, 45 slaves, Harris page 215

PERRY, Lucy B., 21 slaves, Harris page 205B

PERRY, Ruston?, 24 slaves, Harris page 197

PERRY, Solomon, 21 slaves, Harris page 205

PERRY, Willie owner Louisburg NC, James Strange overseer, 73 slaves, Galloway page 190

PERRYDr. Willie?, 70 slaves, Harris page 202

PERSON, Antny A., 28 slaves, Harris page 215B

PERSON, Presley C., 24 slaves, Franklinton page 182

PERSON, Thos. A., 34 slaves, Harris page 2o2B

PERSON, Willie M., 31 slaves, Franklinton page 182

PIERCE?, Archd. Sr., 21 slaves, Harris page 203

REID, James, 51 slaves, Harris page 221

RODWELL, Robert, 24 slaves, Harris page 220

RUFFIN, Mary, 22 slaves, Galloway page 188B

SLOTH?, Thos. J., 29 slaves, Harris page 203B

SMITH, Joseph M., 23 slaves, Harris page 213

SOLOMON, Elizabeth, 22 slaves, Harris page 217B

SPRUILL, Wm. D., 36 slaves, Franklinton page 183B

STAMPER, M. D., 42 slaves, Harris page 200B

STONE, David, 25 slaves, Harris page 2131B

TAYLOR, Archibald, 63 slaves, Harris page 205B

TERRELL, Tolliver, 34 slaves, Harris page 216

THARINGTON, Richd., 29 slaves, Harris page 209B

THOMAS, J__. E., 28 slaves, Harris page 200B

THOMAS, Jos. J., 24 slaves, Harris page 203

THOMAS, Thos K., 27 slaves, Harris page 200

WARD, Hardy, 39 slaves, Harris page 195B

WEBB, Wilson D., 24 slaves, Harris page 197B

WILDER, Rueben, 32 slaves, Franklinton page 183

WILDER, Wm., 20 slaves, Harris page 194

WILLIAMS, Archd. D., 50 slaves, Harris page 207

WILLIAMS, Wm. P., 45 slaves, Harris page 208

WILLIAMSON, Tempie? Owner Louisburg NC, Jesse Perry overseer,59 slaves, Galloway page 191

WILLIAMSON, Tempy, 72 slaves, Harris page 207B

WILSON, John, 21 slaves, Harris page 212

YARBRO, Jas. H., 49 slaves, Harris page 217B

YARBROUGH, J. S., 83 slaves, Franklinton page 184

YARBROUGH, James H. Owner, James W.? Uzzle? Overseer, 27 slaves, Harris page 179B ends on 192

YARBROUGH, John B., 26 slaves, Harris page 222

YOUNG, Augustus P. & two others, Wm. R. Young for, 23 slaves, Harris page 193B

YOUNG, Bryant, 24 slaves, Harris page 194

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

ALFORD, 292, 28, 2, 51, 28, 2

ALSTON, 960, 479, 51, 543, 474, 50

BRANCH, 976, 100, 21, 137, 97, 21

BRODIE, 53, 30, 12, 30, 28, 12

CLIFTON, 209, 16, 12, 21, 16, 12

COOK, 3149, 124, 19, 228, 118, 19

COOLEY, 165, 5, 4, 7, 4, 3

COPPEDGE, 19, 13, 5, 13, 13, 5

CRUDUP, 38, 29, 15, 35, 29, 15

DAVIS, 13725, 1116, 59, 1515, 1051, 59

EDGERTON, 19, 11, 0, 10, 10, 0

FOSTER, 2611, 175, 41, 239, 162, 41

GILL, 591, 59, 7, 84, 58, 7

GREEN, 11070, 540, 44, 783, 509, 44

HARRIS, 11315, 729, 55, 1074, 704, 55

HAWKINS, 2816, 208, 17, 3080, 192, 16

HILL, 6675, 635, 10, 857, 613, 10

HOLDEN, 242, 39, 16, 49, 390, 16

JEFFREYS, 127, 85, 17, 85, 82, 17

JOHNSON, 33402, 1230, 33, 1962, 1144, 32

JONES, 27193, 1868, 36, 2779, 1760, 36

KEARNEY, 118, 87, 20, 88, 86, 20

LEWIS, 8707, 414, 9, 579, 385, 9

LITTLEJOHN, 175, 24, 8, 30, 21, 8

MALONE, 839, 65, 11, 73, 48, 11

MANN, 558, 87, 12, 98, 87, 12

MARTIN, 5318, 372, 4, 544, 359, 3

MASSENBURG, 28, 14, 12, 15, 14, 12

MAY, 1116, 83, 17, 128, 82, 17

MCKNIGHT, 315, 29, 15, 36, 28, 14

MITCHELL, 4089, 304, 36, 449, 294, 35

MITCHENOR?, 12, 11, 3, 11, 11, 3

MOON, 350, 19, 0, 32, 18, 0

MOSES, 534, 15, 0, 27, 15, 0

NEAL, 1145, 132, 21, 160, 123, 21

NICHOLSON, 453, 84, 1, 106, 81, 1

PERRY, 2432 399, 140, 512, 393, 138

PERSON, 144, 67, 32, 76, 66, 32

PIERCE?, 852, 70, 0, 92, 68, 0

REID, 1023, 115, 3, 149, 109, 3

RODWELL, 26, 19, 5, 21, 19, 5

RUFFIN, 591, 133, 14, 185, 130, 14

SLOTH?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

SMITH, 29087, 1805, 8, 2639, 1722, 8

SOLOMON, 365, 27, 3, 42, 27, 3

SPRUILL, 130, 97, 1, 99, 97, 1

STAMPER, 65, 26, 4, 29, 26, 4

STONE, 1070, 66, 8, 87, 62, 8

TAYLOR, 11696, 678, 12, 1003, 637, 12

TERRELL, 401, 22, 6, 40, 22, 6

THARINGTON, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

THOMAS, 11418, 383, 36, 701, 357, 34

WARD, 2525, 273, 4, 387, 269, 4

WEBB, 1752, 159, 9, 248, 151, 9

WILDER, 275, 64, 24, 84, 64, 24

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2061, 54, 2969, 1967, 53

WILLIAMSON, 1289, 183, 7, 249, 168, 5

WILSON, 10819, 560, 13, 826, 534, 13

YARBRO, 35, 8, 7, 10, 8, 7

YARBROUGH, 147, 12, 2, 17, 12, 2

YOUNG, 6185, 305, 27, 471, 295, 27

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