Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   

BERTIE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, June 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with the largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Bertie County, North Carolina (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 920) reportedly includes a total of 8,185 slaves. This transcription includes 115 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Bertie County, accounting for 5,850 slaves, or about 71.5% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 468 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Bertie County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first page number on which they were listed. There were no subdivisions listed within the County. The page numbers used are the numbers rubber stamped in the upper right corner of every other page of the census, with the intervening pages being reported here with a B added to the number of the preceding page. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In North Carolina in 1860 there were 311 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,184 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber, though not specifically looking for such named slaves, did not notice any such information while doing this transcription, except for the following: 100 year old female black Basly(?), held by W. D. Wynns on page 121B; 110 female black Betty, held by J. H. Etheridge on page 131B; 103 male black Simon, held by Jno. Coward on page 160B; and 102 male black Jacob, held by Wilie J. Gilliam on page 163. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Bertie County population included 5,806 whites, 319 “free colored” and 8,185 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had decreased about 5% to 5,513, while the “colored” population had decreased about 12.5 % to 7,437. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 9,897 whites, about a 1.7 times increase, while the 1960 total of 14,447 “Negroes”was also about 1.7 times more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to County boundaries. Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in the same County? Charleston County, South Carolina saw an increase in colored population of about 24,000 between 1860 and 1870, so possibly that is where some went, even though the overall colored population in South Carolina remained about the same in 1870 as it was in 1860. Between 1860 and 1870, the North Carolina colored population increased by about 31,000, to approximately 392,000, an 8% increase, with these Counties being some that showed significant increases (from around 10% to 50%): Craven; Edgecombe; Granville, Mecklenberg; New Hanover, Wake, Warren and Wayne. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore possible places of relocation for colored persons from Bertie County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); Florida, up 29,000 (46%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ANTONY (see Hill & Antony)

ASKEW, Aaron O., 45 slaves, page 152B

ASKEW, Andrew J., 444 slaves, page 153

ASKEW, Wilie, 42 slaves, page 115

ASKEW?, George O., 31 slaves, page 148

ASKIN, John O., 27 slaves, page 157

BAZEMORE, Henry, 28 slaves, page 148B

BENBURY, Jno., 37 slaves, page 164

BIGGS, Kader?. By Elisha Bryant overseer, 45 slaves, page 157

BISHOP, Wm., 29 slaves, page 154

BOND, James, 45 slaves, page 119

BOND, L. T., Guardian, 86 slaves, page 120B

BOND, Lewis T., 70 slaves, page 120

BOND, Lewis, 68 slaves, page 119B

BRITTON, John L., 32 slaves, page 135

BUNCH, Jeremiah Sen., 25 slaves, page 118

BURDEN, Abram, 27 slaves, page 138B

BUSH, Jos.? P., 22 slaves, page 154

CAPEHART, Cullen, 258 slaves, page 123B

CAPEHART, G. W., 40 slaves, page 125

CHERRY, Aaron, 34 slaves, page 137B

CHERRY, Jos.? B., 43 slaves, page 118B

CHERRY, Sol., 25 slaves, page 162

CHERRY, Thos., 39 slaves, page 149

CLARK, David C. Owner, Thos. Smith manager, 66 slaves, page 143

CLARK, Gavin, 71 slaves, page 144

COOPER, John, 39 slaves, page 125B

COOPER, Jos., 86 slaves, page 150

COTTON, Lewis, 43 slaves, page 165B

EASON, Alfred Estate, by J. W. Lessoms, 36 slaves, page 159B

ETHERIDGE, Jos.? H., 246 slaves, page 131B

ETHERIDGE, Wm. D., 40 slaves, page 133B

FLOYD, Samuel, 26 slaves, page 150B

FOLK, Wm. K., 28 slaves, page 115B

FREEMAN, Isaac P., 68 slaves, page 160

GASKINS, David, 32 slaves, page 127

GILLAM, Thos., 28 slaves, page 119B

GILLIAM, Wilie J., 87 slaves, page 163

GRIFFIN, John B., 68 slaves, page 150B

HARDY, Ellinor, by H. H. Hardy Guard., 39 slaves, page 158B

HARDY, H. H., 79 slaves, page 157B

HARDY, Jas.? H., 33 slaves, page 154

HECKSTALL, Elizabeth, 22 slaves, page 122

HILL, A. B., & ANTONY, owners, Willis E. G. Burnell manager, 56 slaves, page 142B

HILL, Wilie R., by H. H. Hartdy Guard., 43 slaves, page 158B

HOGGARD, Wm., 33 slaves, page 117B

HOLLY, Augustus, 173 slaves, page 128

HOLLY, Thos., 47 slaves, page 135B

HURQUHART?, A. B., by overseer, 58 slaves, page 140B

JORDAN, Jos., 35 slaves, page 121B

LANE, George, 25 slaves, page 130B

LEARY, Jos.?, 27 slaves, page 129B

LEE, Jos., 33 slaves, page 146B

LEE, William H., 28 slaves, page 159

MEBANE, A. W., 30 slaves, page 117

MILLER, F. C., 57 slaves, page 138B

MITCHELL, James S.?, 30 slaves, page 152B

MITCHELL, Wm. D., 29 slaves, page 134

MIZELL, Josiah, 43 slaves, page 130

MORING, Wm., 141 slaves, page 116B

NORFLEET, Stephen A., 115 slaves, page 154B

OUTLAW, David, 91 slaves, page 162

OUTLAW, E. Estate of, 29 slaves, page 164

POOL, Jno., 41 slaves, page 161B

POWELL, Jessee, 39 slaves, page 155B

PUGH, J. J., 52 slaves, page 145

PUGH, Thos. J., 46 slaves, page 145B

PUGH, Whitonell S.?, 32 slaves, page 147

PUGH, William A., 67 slaves, page 149B

RASCOE, John P., 87 slaves, page 139B

RAYNOR?, Marcus J., 22 slaves, page 159B

REDDICK, Thos. W., 48 slaves, page 115B

ROUHAL?, Fannie, 47 slaves, page 162B

RUFFIN, Rachel, 58 slaves, page 161

RYAN, Emily, 41 slaves, page 164

SHARROCK, W. T., 37 slaves, page 148

SIMONS, E. P., 26 slaves, page 136

SMALLWOOD, Charles, 55 slaves, page 147

SMALLWOOD, T. J. P., 87 slaves, page 140

SMALLWOOD, T.? J. P. Guardian to son, 52 slaves, page 164B

SMITH, Crecy? E., 25 slaves, page 145

SMITHWICK, Saml. W., 36 slaves, page 114B

SPELLER, Thos. H., 103 slaves, page 126B

SPIVEY, Wm., 24 slaves, page 160B

SPRUELL, L.? B., 63 slaves, page 148B

SUTTON, Wm. T.?, 168 slaves, page 122B

SUTTON?, Stark A., 28 slaves, page 163

SWAIN, Wm. R., 83 slaves, page 129

TAYLOE, Wm. H., 48 slaves, page 152

TAYLOR, J. S., 25 slaves, page 118

THOMPSON, John owner, Hill Spivey manager, 43 slaves, page 143B

THOMPSON, Lewis owner, W. A. Pierce manager, 47 slaves, page 142B

THOMPSON, Lewis, 104 slaves, page 146

TYLER, Parry C., 35 slaves, page 153B

URQUHART, Richard A. Estate of, by B. Hines overseer, 39 slaves, page 157B

URQUHART, W. H. & J. B. Owners, Benjn. Brister manager, 81 slaves, page 143B

WARD, Jhames H., 20 slaves, page 121

WARD, Sarah & child, 33 slaves, page 151B

WATSON, Thos. C., 43 slaves, page 137

WATSON, Wineford, 24 slaves, page 144B

WATTON, William, 23 slaves, page 150

WEBB, John N., 25 slaves, page 126

WEST, Elizabeth, 26 slaves, page 116

WHITE, heirs, John Wilson Guardian, 61 slaves, page 131

WHITE, Isaac, 21 slaves, page 134

WHITE, Josiah, 33 slaves, page 133

WILLIAMS, John P. Owner, R. Powell manager

WILLIAMS, Jos. Owner, J. Brown manager, 23 slaves, page 144B

WILLIAMS, Mary W. Owner, David W. Hamell manager, 33 slaves, page 141B

WILLIAMS, T. L. Owner, W. Edmonson manager, 26 slaves, page 142

WILLIAMS, W. K. A. Owner, by John P. Hamell manager, 74 slaves, page 141

WILSON, Etherton, 30 slaves, page 133B

WILSON, John, 27 slaves, page 130B

WINSTON, P. H., 31 slaves, page 114

WINSTON, Turner, 32 slaves, page 114

WYNNS, Wm. D., 21 slaves, page 121B

 

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

ANTONY, 197, 1, 0, 7, 1, 0

ASKEW, 227, 91, 46, 120, 91, 46

ASKIN, 13, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

BAZEMORE, 19, 13, 8, 13, 13, 8

BENBURY, 26, 26, 0, 26, 26, 0

BIGGS, 197, 45, 12, 55, 44, 12

BISHOP, 605, 46, 9, 55, 43, 9

BOND, 825, 106, 53, 172, 105, 53

BRITTON, 273, 17, 3, 33, 15, 2

BUNCH, 203, 46, 25, 62, 46, 25

BURDEN, 122, 8, 2, 21, 8, 2

BUSH, 1228, 18, 4, 41, 17, 4

CAPEHART, 26, 21, 11, 21, 21, 11

CHERRY, 425, 156, 46, 189, 156, 46

CLARK, 5807, 382, 26, 549, 358, 2 6

COOPER, 3459, 261, 27, 342, 247, 27

COTTON, 590, 82, 4, 114, 81, 4

EASON, 203, 69, 11, 84, 68, 11

ETHERIDGE, 65, 22, 5, 33, 22, 5

FLOYD, 870, 78, 3, 98, 66, 3

FOLK, 49, 6, 1, 6, 6, 1

FREEMAN, 2493, 271, 36, 341, 262, 36

GASKINS, 304, 42, 14, 45, 41, 14

GILLAM, 116, 6, 0, 9, 5, 0

GILLIAM, 311, 72, 28, 73, 71, 28

GRIFFIN, 2464, 167, 12, 244, 159, 12

HARDY, 1078, 124, 34, 165, 121, 34

HECKSTALL, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12

HILL, 6675, 635, 13, 867, 613, 13

HOGGARD, 23, 17, 15, 17, 17, 15

HOLLY, 387, 56, 15, 78, 56, 15

HURQUHART?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

JORDAN, 2359, 196, 7, 270, 189, 7

LANE, 1402, 194, 7, 265, 191, 7

LEARY, 64, 27, 7, 31, 26, 7

LEE, 6357, 267, 23, 435, 253, 23

MEBANE, 119, 74, 13, 85, 73, 13

MILLER, 6577, 400, 14, 576, 376, 14

MITCHELL, 4089, 304, 13, 449, 294, 13

MIZELL, 27, 16, 10, 16, 16, 10

MORING, 21, 13, 11, 13, 13, 11

NORFLEET, 130, 49, 12, 65, 48, 12

OUTLAW, 173, 91, 30, 112, 91, 30

POOL, 572, 110, 3, 130, 104, 3

POWELL, 2420, 362, 21, 474, 355, 21

PUGH, 343, 101, 55, 139, 100, 55

RASCOE, 30, 24, 21, 25, 24, 21

RAYNOR?, 20, 5, 0, 6, 5, 0

REDDICK, 270, 59, 5, 92, 56, 5

ROUHAL?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

RUFFIN, 591, 133, 44, 185, 130, 44

RYAN, 285, 14, 6, 25, 14, 6

SHARROCK, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4

SIMONS, 851, 69, 4, 93, 67, 4

SMALLWOOD, 359, 63, 33, 73, 62, 33

SMITH, 29087, 1805, 24, 2939, 1722, 23

SMITHWICK, 17, 13, 6, 14, 13, 6

SPELLER, 39, 28, 27, 29, 28, 27

SPIVEY, 119, 25, 9, 29, 25, 9

SPRUELL, 38, 29, 4, 32, 29, 4

SUTTON, 713, 155, 14, 192, 151, 14

SWAIN, 183, 34, 8, 42, 34, 8

TAYLOE, 12, 8, 8, 10, 8, 8

TAYLOR, 11696, 678, 18, 1003, 637, 18

THOMPSON, 8826, 495, 51, 752, 475, 51

TYLER, 1134, 31, 5, 53, 29, 5

URQUHART, 50, 17, 13, 17, 14, 12

WARD, 2525, 273, 16, 387, 269, 16

WATSON, 3567, 312, 27, 428, 304, 27

WEBB, 1752, 159, 4, 248, 151, 4

WEST, 2298, 90, 9, 135, 85, 9

WHITE, 8567, 574, 38, 870, 546, 38

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2061, 61, 2969, 1967, 61

WILSON, 10819, 560, 17, 836, 524, 17

WINSTON, 853, 41, 6, 61, 41, 6

WYNNS, 20, 12, 10, 12, 12, 10

Return to Home and Links Page

Bertie County GenWeb site

You are the visitor to this page.