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YAZOO COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, April 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Yazoo County, Mississippi, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Yazoo County, Mississippi census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Yazoo County, Mississippi census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Yazoo County, Mississippi in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Yazoo County, Mississippi (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 604) reportedly includes a total of 16,716 slaves, ranking it as one of the highest County totals in Mississippi. This transcription includes 99 slaveholders who held 50 or more slaves in Yazoo County, accounting for 9,001 slaves, or 54% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 598 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Mississippi in 1860 there were 481 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,868 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not find any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Yazoo County population included 5,657 whites, 0 "free colored" and 16,716 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had dropped about 14% to 4,884, and the "colored" population had dropped almost 26% to 12,395. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County, though a portion had become part of a new County, was listed as having 12,862 whites, slightly more than double, but the 1960 total of 18,759 "Negroes"was only about 12% more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) Where did all these freed slaves go? Orleans County in Louisiana saw an increase in colored population of almost double between 1860 and 1870, growing to over 50,000, so likely that is where many went. Lowndes and Warren Counties in Mississippi saw increases of 6,000 and 8,000, but no other Mississippi County showed such a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Mississippi colored population only increased by 1%, about 6,000. States that saw more significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Yazoo County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ANDING, Martin, 103 slaves, page 505B

ANDREWS, Joseph, 77 slaves, page 492B

BALFOUR, W. L., 70 slaves, page 578

BALLANCE?, Jas., 65 slaves, page 491B

BARKSDALE, H., 80 slaves, page 527B

BARNETT, L. W., 59 slaves, page 524B

BEE, Silas M., 94 slaves, page 520

BONNEY, C. D., John Martin Manager, 83 slaves, page 547B

BOYLAN, W.? M., reidence in N.C., Robert Harris Manager, 98 slaves, page 532B

BOYLAN, William, 95 slaves, page 535

BRICKELL, Mrs. E. P., 54 slaves, page 534

BRIDGFORTH, R. M. & J. C., 58 slaves, page 567

BULL, James C., 68 slaves, page 551

BURRUS, L. R., 132 slaves, page 525

CAGE, A. H., 75 slaves, page 575B

CAMPBELL, J. W., 50 slaves, page 492B

CANNON, V. M. & B. E., 58 slaves, page 504

CHEW, Augustin, 66 slaves, page 550B

COCKS, P. G., A. C. Jones Manager, 131 slaves, page 521

DAVIS, Est. T. L., John Hudson Agent and Manager, 202 slaves, page 518B

DAY, Robert Sr., 76 slaves, page 556B

DENMAN, Mrs. N.?, 61 slaves, page 522B

DUBISON, C. L., 83 slaves, page 491

DURFEY, R. W., 110 slaves, page 536

EWING, M. W., 66 slaves, page 539B

EXUM, Kinchen, 88 slaves, page 557B

FUGATE, V. H., 51 slaves, page 557

GALE, Josiah, 88 slaves, page 540

GALE, Thomas, 149 slaves, page 538

GALE, W. D., 86 slaves, page 537B

GARTLEY, W. F., 63 slaves, page 576B

GIBBS, W. D., 62 slaves, page 578B

HARRIS, W. C., 67 slaves, page 520

HILL, N. R., 86 slaves, page 526B

HOGAN, W. H., 64 slaves, page 548B

HOGGATT & CARUTHERS, 100 slaves, page 564B

HOLLOMAN, T. R., 67 slaves, page 543B

INGERSOLE, C. J., 94 slaves, page 526

JAMES, S. L., 71 slaves, page 572

JIGGETTS, L. M., 52 slaves, page 579

JOHNSON & HAMER, , 74 slaves, page 512B

JOHNSON, R. M., 69 slaves, page 515B

JOHNSON, R. M. & B. W. , residence in KY, R. A. Barkley Mgr., 90 slaves, page 542

JORDAN, G. N.?, 142 slaves, page 516

KING, L. P., 110 slaves, page 506B

LAMB, Est of I.?, 80 slaves, page 561B

LEE, F. B. Est., 138 slaves, page 545

LUSE, Stephen, 115 slaves, page 584

MCKEE, John, 72 slaves, page 548

MEAD, Sarah G., 126 slaves, page 499B

MICHIE, J. J., 78 slaves, page 528B

MOORE, J. S., 73 slaves, page 493B

MOORE, Jas. S., 80 slaves, page 492

MORTON, J. W., 51 slaves, page 505

MOSLEY, J. R. 66 slaves, page 577B

O'RILEY, Jas. P., 63 slaves, page 493

OGDEN, George, 58 slaves, page 579

PARTEE, W. B., 202 slaves, page 540B

PAUL, John S., 61 slaves, page 527

PAYNE, A. M., 115 slaves, page 511B

PAYNE, M. R., 60 slaves, page 512

PEPPER, Z. Sr., 54 slaves, page 570

PICKETT, Micajah, 180 slaves, page 497

PICKETT, R. K., 73 slaves, page 531B

PICKETT, W.? M., 92 slaves, page 530B

PICKETT, William, 85 slaves, page 582

POWELL & BURRUS, , 70 slaves, page 532

PURVIS, J. J., 54 slaves, page 580B

PURVIS, J. W., 63 slaves, page 552

READ, J. S., 75 slaves, page 518

REGAN, Mary A., 67 slaves, page 508

REIMAN, M., 55 slaves, page 589

RICHARDSON, E., 127 slaves, page 524

RICKS, B. S., 139 slaves, page 513B

ROACH, Benjamin, 266 slaves, page 568

ROACH, David, 176 slaves, page 510

ROBERTS, Mary A., 77 slaves, page 514B

SCOTT, Burwell, 68 slaves, page 586

SCOTT, J. H., 52 slaves, page 574B

SHARP, J. M., 117 slaves, page 556B

SIMMONS & MANNING, 92 slaves, page 489B

SIMMONS, John, 134 slaves, page 489

SISSON?, J. P., 57 slaves, page 503

SMITH, F. G., 66 slaves, page 501B

SPEARS?, J. C., 114 slaves, page 507

STEWART, L. D., 61 slaves, page 511

SWAYZE, May A., 52 slaves, page 565B

SWAYZE, Richard, 78 slaves, page 565B

THOMAS, H. J., 64 slaves, page 498B

THOMAS, J. P., 102 slaves, page 580

VAUGHN, Henry Sr., 293 slaves, page 494B

WHITE, L. L. B., 80 slaves, page 509

WILBURN, W. W., 83 slaves, page 498

WILKINSON, E. C., 56 slaves, page 587B

WILLIS, John, 130 slaves, page 559

WILSON, W. L., 90 slaves, page 536B

WOOLFORK, John. H., 131 slaves, page 500

YANDELL?, Est. of N., 83 slaves, page 529

YERGER, Est.., 120 slaves, page 524

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ANDING, 1,0, 0, 0, 0, 0

ANDREWS, 1160, 75, 6, 53, 37, 4

BALFOUR, 7, 4, 1, 2, 2, 0,

BALLANCE?, 17, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0

BARKSDALE, 300, 31, 0, 23, 19, 0

BARNETT, 755, 75, 0, 37, 30, 0

BEE, 115, 6, 0, 7, 6, 0

BONNEY, 20, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

BOYLAN, 22, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1

BRICKELL, 11, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BRIDGFORTH, 18, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BULL, 176, 17, 6, 13, 8, 3

BURRUS, 45, 6, 2, 3, 3, 1,

CAGE, 129, 40, 3, 32, 25, 3

CAMPBELL, 2897, 235, 16, 166, 116, 6,

CANNON, 784, 109, 5, 50, 38, 2

CARUTHERS, 117, 24, 0, 12, 11, 0

CHEW, 126, 15, 1, 7, 5, 1

COCKS, 25, 4, 0, 4, 2, 0

DAVIS, 13725, 1397, 26, 1038, 743, 12

DAY, 1002, 70, 6, 50, 44, 4,

DENMAN, 29, 7, 0, 6, 5, 0

DUBISON, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DURFEY, 3, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

EWING, 432, 37, 0, 20, 13, 0

EXUM, 52, 4, 2, 4, 3, 1

FUGATE, 35, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1

GALE, 268, 22, 3, 24, 17, 2

GARTLEY, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

GIBBS, 1191, 82, 7, 57, 46, 5

HAMER, 97, 52, 9, 26, 24, 5

HARRIS, 11315, 1074, 55, 736, 547, 36

HILL, 6675, 484, 18, 313, 211, 9

HOGAN, 516, 50, 3, 38, 28, 2

HOGGATT, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HOLLOMAN, 69, 3, 2, 1, 1, 0

INGERSOLE, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

JAMES, 3993, 366, 7, 271, 194, 3

JIGGETTS, 2, 2, 0, 1, 1, 0

JOHNSON, 33402, 2900, 132, 2220, 1541, 73

JORDAN, 2359, 248, 8, 154, 115, 5

KING, 4979, 384, 14, 291, 189, 9

LAMB, 285, 22, 8, 15, 10, 5

LEE, 6357, 598, 10,450, 328, 5

LUSE, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MANNING, 448, 41, 0, 16, 11, 0

MCKEE, 232. 31, 0, 25, 16, 0

MEAD, 160, 15, 1, 12, 7, 1

MICHIE, 54, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

MOORE, 8698, 1061, 35, 660, 483, 19

MORTON, 1174, 94, 9, 52, 39, 6

MOSLEY, 352, 66, 1, 29, 24, 1

O'RILEY, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

OGDEN, 90, 4, 2, 3, 2, 2

PARTEE, 86, 20, 2, 10, 9, 2

PAUL, 291, 9, 0, 13, 6, 0

PAYNE, 1603, 91, 1, 65, 45, 0

PEPPER, 85, 8, 6, 10, 8, 6

PICKETT, 317, 35, 20, 30, 23, 16

POWELL, 2420, 206, 13, 139, 107, 7

PURVIS, 69, 3, 1, 4, 3, 1

READ, 779, 50, 0, 28, 24, 0

REGAN, 32, 7, 1, 7, 7, 1

REIMAN, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

RICHARDSON, 3741, 271, 10, 183, 123, 6

RICKS, 351, 14, 3, 13, 6, 2

ROACH, 375, 33, 1, 22, 16, 0

ROBERTS, 3309, 208, 8, 162, 105, 4

SCOTT, 8407, 679, 22, 507, 357, 10

SHARP, 759, 47, 5, 24, 18, 2

SIMMONS, 2845, 280, 10, 187, 141, 8

SISSON?, 28, 6, 0, 5, 2, 0

SMITH, 29087, 2581, 103, 1912, 1396, 53

SPEARS?, 326, 35, 0, 27, 22, 0

STEWART, 3648, 321, 21, 240, 179, 10

SWAYZE, 12, 7, 5, 6, 6, 4

THOMAS, 11418, 945, 481, 726, 526, 22

VAUGHN, 864, 105, 4, 66, 53, 4

WHITE, 9567, 863, 30, 623, 456, 17

WILBURN, 182, 56, 4, 30, 28, 1

WILKINSON, 521, 61, 1, 40, 32, 0

WILLIS, 2042, 223, 3, 176, 132, 2

WILSON, 10819, 890, 48, 679, 464, 26

WOOLFORK, 43, 4, 2, 2, 1, 1

YANDELL?, 5, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

YERGER, 20, 9, 2, 6, 4, 1

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