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NOXUBEE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, October 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Noxubee County, Mississippi, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Noxubee County, Mississippi census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Noxubee County, Mississippi census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Noxubee County, Mississippi in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Noxubee County, Mississippi (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 602) reportedly includes a total of 15,496 slaves. This transcription includes 138 slaveholders who held 40 or more slaves in Noxubee County, accounting for 9,131 slaves, or 59% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 610 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the District where counted, the number of the District and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Mississippi in 1860 there were 481 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,868 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not find any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Noxubee County population included 5,171 whites, no "free colored" and 15,496 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population was almost unchanged at 5,107, and the "colored" population was also about the same at 15,798. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 4,724 whites, about 8% less than in 1860, while the 1960 total of 12,064 "Negroes"was about 22% less than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries.

Where did the Noxubee County freed slaves go if they did not stay in the County? Orleans County in Louisiana saw an increase in colored population of almost double between 1860 and 1870, growing to over 50,000, so likely that is where some went. Lowndes and Warren Counties in Mississippi saw increases of 6,000 and 8,000, but no other Mississippi County showed such a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Mississippi colored population only increased by 1%, about 6,000. States that saw more significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Noxubee County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ALLEN, W. W., 54 slaves, Dist. 2, page 299B

BALDWIN, J. B., 60 slaves, Dist. 1, page 274B

BALDWIN, W. T., 48 slaves, Dist. 1, page 274B

BALLARD, Lott, 71 slaves, Dist. 2, page 296

BANKHEAD, Wm. J., 71 slaves, Dist. 2, page 287

BARNARD, Est. J. D., 52 slaves, Dist. 1, page 247

BARNETT, Charles, 79 slaves, Dist. 1, page 272

BARTON, Thos. P., 54 slaves, Dist. 3, page 314

BASKERVILLE, Mrs., 42 slaves, Dist. 3, page 319

BEASLEY, H. O., 63 slaves, Dist. 3, page 303B

BILLUPS?, Jno., 84 slaves, Dist. 3, page 316

BINION, Job. H., 46 slaves, Dist. 2, page 285

BINION?, George P., 88 slaves, Dist. 5, page 347

BLEWETT, T. J. Sr., 177 slaves, Dist. 3, page 316B

BONDS, James, 54 slaves, Dist. 1, page 269B

BOYKIN, Dr. W. D., 44 slaves, Dist. 2, page 284

BREWER, Burwell, 47 slaves, Dist. 1, page 262

BREWER, Est. L., 44 slaves, Dist. 1, page 264

BREWER, Raleigh, 66 slaves, Dist. 1, page 255

BROOKS, M. M., 102 slaves, Dist. 3, page 317B

BROOKS, Mrs. S. A., 80 slaves, Dist. 3, page 309

BRYSON, James, 45 slaves, Dist. 3, page 304B

BUSH , A. H., 46 slaves, Dist. 1, page 254

BUSH, A. P., 51 slaves, Dist. 5, page 346B

BUSH, Danl., 64 slaves, Dist. 1, page 264B

BUSH, E. T., 74 slaves, Dist. 1, page 252B

BUSH, E. T., 90 slaves, Dist. 1, page 255

CAMPBELL (see Lyles & Campbell)

CARPENTER, E. L., 42 slaves, Dist. 5, page 341B

CAUGLEN?, D. A. J., 68 slaves, Dist. 1, page 263

CLAY, Matt, 104 slaves, Dist. 3, page 314B

CLAYTON, Julia, 96 slaves, Dist. 1, page 249

CLEMENTS, E. C., 58 slaves, Dist. 1, page 269

CONNOR, Est. A., 67 slaves, Dist. 1, page 267B

CONNOR, M., 48 slaves, Dist. 2, page 282

CONNOR, Saml., 51 slaves, Dist. 1, page 259B

CONNOR, W. McC., 40 slaves, Dist. 2, page 282

CONNORS, W. P.?, 44 slaves, Dist. 1, page 250B

CONSTANTINE, F. L., 42 slaves, Dist. 3, page 324B

COTTON, J. W., 104 slaves, Dist. 4, page 333

DAVES, E. P., 62 slaves, Dist. 2, page 288B

DAVIE, G. S., 92 slaves, Dist. 1, page 254B & 255

DENT, Wm., 60 slaves, Dist. 2, page 290

DOUGLASS, A., 48 slaves, Dist. 5, page 345B

DUPRIS, Daniel, 56 slaves, Dist. 3, page 315

DUPRIS?, Elijah, 76 slaves, Dist. 3, page 310

ECKFORD, James, 66 slaves, Dist. 3, page 322

EDMONDS, J. L., 82 slaves, Dist. 5, page 343

EICHELBERGER, E. H., 57 slaves, Dist. 4, page 327B

FERRIS, Eugene, 59 slaves, Dist. 2, page 299

FOOTE, H. W., 92 slaves, Dist. 5, page 344B

FORT, E., 67 slaves, Dist. 3, page 326

GILLESPIE, C. A., 83 slaves, Dist. 3, page 325

GILLESPIE, Est. Jas., 70 slaves, Dist. 1, page 273B

GILMER, Jas. H., 87 slaves, Dist. 5, page 339B

GOOCH, N. M., 63 slaves, Dist. 1, page 261

GOODWIN, W. W., 65 slaves, Dist. 2, page 290B

GRESHAM, J. B., 72 slaves, Dist. 1, page 266B

HAGER, Maj. Jas., 66 slaves, Dist. 1, page 270

HARLAN, John, 40 slaves, Dist. 2, page 287

HARRIS, Geo. H., 101 slaves, Dist. 1, page 249B

HARRISON, Jas. T., 87 slaves, Dist. 3, page 309B

HARRISON, N. H., 63 slaves, Dist. 2, page 286B

HARRISON, Wiley, 62 slaves, Dist. 2, page 289B

HIBLER, Jas. L., 56 slaves, Dist. 2, page 291B

HIBLER, W. H., 48 slaves, Dist. 3, page 323B

HIGGINS, W. W., 40 slaves, Dist. 4, page 327

HOLEMAN, R. B., 51 slaves, Dist. 4, page 329B

HOPKINS, O.? W., 52 slaves, Dist. 1, page 258B

HUNTER, J. L., 63 slaves, Dist. 3, page 311

IRBY, Richd., 77 slaves, Dist. 3, page 325B

IVY, Bird, 175 slaves, Dist. 1, page 265B

JEFFRES, A., 74 slaves, Dist. 1, page 247B

JENKINS, Wm., 40 slaves, Dist. 2, page 299

JOINER, Joshua, 51 slaves, Dist. 1, page 258

JORDAN, W. H., 63 slaves, Dist. 2, page 296B

LANDERS, A., 68 slaves, Dist. 5, page 346B

LINETH?, Wm. H., 46 slaves, Dist. 1, page 254

LLOYD, Levi, 53 slaves, Dist. 4, page 330

LONG, Jno. R., 43 slaves, Dist. 2, page 295

LOWRY, J. T., 56 slaves, Dist. 1, page 256

LOWRY, Mrs. S. N., 74 slaves, Dist. 5, page 342

LUCKETT, David W., 86 slaves, Dist. 2, page 297

LYLES & CAMPBELL, 47 slaves, Dist. 4, page 335B

MALONE, F. B., 62 slaves, Dist. 1, page 265

MANN, Tyre J., 126 slaves, Dist. 1, page 248

MARTIN, A. S., 74 slaves, Dist. 3, page 312B

MAY, Joseph Sr., 102 slaves, Dist. 4, page 328

MCINTOSH, Danl., 64 slaves, Dist. 3, page 313B

MCLARAN?, Chas. M., 59 slaves, Dist. 1, page 252

MCLEOD, Est. Jno., 80 slaves, Dist. 2, page 287B

MCLEOD?, Jennie M., 41 slaves, Dist. 3, page 306

MCNEES, S.? C., 40 slaves, Dist. 2, page 300

MOORE, Charles W., 50 slaves, Dist. 1, page 253B

MOORE, Ed, 64 slaves, Dist. 1, page 251B

MOORE, Geo. D.?, 44 slaves, Dist. 1, page 274

MOORE, George, 49 slaves, Dist. 3, page 320

MOORE, Thos. A., 54 slaves, Dist. 1, page 274

MOSLEY, John T., 64 slaves, Dist. 2, page 298

MURE, Thos. J., 42 slaves, Dist. 1, page 247

NANCE, Jas., 50 slaves, Dist. 1, page 252

NEILL, Robt., 40 slaves, Dist. 2, page 285B

NELSON, Mathew, 40 slaves, Dist. 3, page 311B

OLIVER, Jno., 70 slaves, Dist. 3, page 318B

ORR, Lim, 76 slaves, Dist. 3, page 318B

PATTON, John, 69 slaves, Dist. 5, page 348

PAULETTE, Est. T. B., 42 slaves, Dist. 2, page 288B

PERRY, Jas. 56 slaves, Dist. 2, page 291B

POPE, H. A., 66 slaves, Dist. 5, page 348

ROBINSON, Est. W., 110 slaves, Dist. 1, page 272B

ROBY, Est. W. W., 67 slaves, Dist. 3, page 308B

SCOTT, Frank T., 71 slaves, Dist. 2, page 294B (ends on 293)

SHERROD, C. F., 73 slaves, Dist. 3, page 315B

SHERROD, Randal, 49 slaves, Dist. 3, page 304

SMITH, J. J. S., 46 slaves, Dist. 2, page 294

SMITH, L. U.?, 106 slaves, Dist. 1, page 268

SMITH, L. E., 61 slaves, Dist. 3, page 321

SPANN, Frank, 60 slaves, Dist. 2, page 281

SPANN, R. R., 161 slaves, Dist. 2, page 282B

SPANN, R. W., 40 slaves, Dist. 2, page 283B

STEWART, Alex, 48 slaves, Dist. 1, page 260B

STEWART, Dr. W. V., 135 slaves, Dist. 1, page 270B

STEWART, Jas., 48 slaves, Dist. 1, page 268

TALIAFERRO, Capt. B., 69 slaves, Dist. 5, page 346

TALIAFERRO, Dr. R. N., 47 slaves, Dist. 1, page 251

TATE, C. C., 48 slaves, Dist. 2, page281B

TATE, Est. Jno. M., 73 slaves, Dist. 1, page 257

TATE, Est. Jno. M.,. 42 slaves, Dist. 1, page 257B

TERRELL, Est. Wm. H., 40 slaves, Dist. 1, page 262B

THOMPSON, T. K., 43 slaves, Dist. 3, page 320

THORNTON, Miss Emma, 40 slaves, Dist. 2, page 289B

TRIPLETT, W. D. C., 47 slaves, Dist. 4, page 329B

TURNER, W. F., 90 slaves, Dist. 1, page 263B

WALKER, L. W. Sr., 67 slaves, Dist. 4, page 334

WALKER, L. W., 139 slaves, Dist. 3, page 323

WELBORNE, J. D., 98 slaves, Dist. 3, page 312

WHITE, W. F., 90 slaves, Dist. 2, page 293B

WIER, Margaret J., 52 slaves, Dist. 2, page 298B

WINFREY, Wm., 48 slaves, Dist. 3, page 309

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ALLEN, 6198, 560, 16, 400, 307, 9

BALDWIN, 634, 73, 13, 33, 26, 2

BALLARD, 633, 49, 18, 35, 26, 7

BANKHEAD, 87, 22, 9, 12, 10, 3

BARNARD, 156, 23, 0, 13, 12, 0

BARNETT, 755, 75, 9, 37, 30, 5

BARTON, 533, 37, 9, 26, 16, 5

BASKERVILLE, 47, 12, 2, 5, 5, 2

BEASLEY, 394, 41, 13, 25, 20, 3

BILLUPS?, 238, 61, 9, 26, 23, 4

BINION, 48, 10, 8, 9, 3, 3

BLEWETT, 21, 17, 2, 6, 6, 2

BONDS, 154, 24, 0, 20, 17, 0

BOYKIN, 399, 45, 12, 37, 29, 4

BREWER, 474, 72, 35, 42, 32, 13

BROOKS, 4486, 381, 32, 266, 189, 14

BRYSON, 94, 10, 4, 4, 3, 2

BUSH, 1228, 111, 60, 57, 41, 19

CAMPBELL, 2897, 235, 7, 166, 116, 5

CARPENTER, 763, 68, 9, 40, 31, 3

CAUGLEN?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CLAY, 1465, 210, 32, 133, 97, 11

CLAYTON, 686, 81, 5, 56, 46, 3

CLEMENTS, 364, 15, 1, 5, 5, 0

CONNOR, 236, 40, 26, 17, 14, 7

CONNORS, 19, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CONSTANTINE, 9, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1

COTTON, 590, 132, 34, 88, 73, 17

DAVES, 25, 15, 9, 4, 4, 3

DAVIE, 81, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1

DENT, 399, 65, 12, 24, 24, 1

DOUGLASS, 825, 56, 9, 42, 28, 4

DUPRIS, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

ECKFORD, 28, 20, 5, 15, 13, 2

EDMONDS, 279, 22, 3, 14, 9, 0

EICHELBERGER, 23, 6, 0, 5, 5, 0

FERRIS, 63, 7, 1, 4, 3, 1

FOOTE, 105, 49, 30, 28, 25, 11

FORT, 421, 47, 0, 27, 20, 0

GILLESPIE, 248, 62, 1

GILMER, 230, 30, 1, 16, 16, 1

GOOCH, 169, 25, 3, 9, 8, 0

GOODWIN, 778, 55, 15, 34, 25, 9

GRESHAM, 160, 13, 13, 5, 4, 4

HAGER, 28, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0

HARLAN, 79, 6, 4, 2, 2, 2

HARRIS, 11315, 1074, 19, 736, 547, 9

HARRISON, 3639, 348, 23, 252, 162, 6

HIBLER, 10, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0

HIGGINS, 434, 46, 9, 31, 24, 2

HOLEMAN, 111, 8, 2, 5, 1, 0

HOPKINS, 1286, 83, 13, 58, 39, 7

HUNTER, 2838, 224, 20, 174, 117, 11

IRBY, 251, 44, 0, 17, 17, 0

IVY, 224, 95, 37, 45, 43, 12

JEFFRES, 31, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

JENKINS, 3848, 240, 9, 197, 133, 5

JOINER, 290, 49, 14, 25, 23, 9

JORDAN, 2359, 248, 9, 154, 115, 2

LANDERS, 101, 6, 0, 4, 3, 0

LINETH?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

LLOYD, 315, 14, 3, 12, 6, 2

LONG, 1828, 143, 14, 86, 56, 4

LOWRY, 370, 43, 19, 22, 18, 7

LUCKETT, 171, 92, 0, 31, 31, 0

LYLES, 233, 36, 0, 23, 20, 0

MALONE, 839, 104, 8, 67, 41, 5

MANN, 558, 17, 0, 21, 11, 0

MARTIN, 5318, 573, 24, 399, 323, 12

MAY, 1116, 148, 27, 106, 87, 11

MCINTOSH, 408, 77, 11, 34, 30, 6

MCLARAN?, 9, 6, 0, 4, 4, 0

MCLEOD, 260, 53, 26, 35, 33, 12

MCNEES, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MOORE, 8698, 1061, 66, 660, 483, 15

MOSLEY, 352, 66, 3, 29, 24, 0

MURE, 12, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0

NANCE, 268, 30, 9, 15, 12, 2

NEILL, 64, 11, 3, 6, 5, 1

NELSON, 3371, 319, 9, 243, 176, 5

OLIVER, 1482, 142, 2, 82, 59, 2

ORR, 289, 61, 18, 41, 37, 13

PATTON, 675, 103, 31, 56, 44, 6

PAULETTE, 5, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1

PERRY, 2432, 182, 13, 122, 89, 7

POPE, 989, 118, 8, 74, 56, 3

ROBINSON, 8046, 715, 34, 511, 356, 11

ROBY, 67, 34, 6, 16, 16, 5

SCOTT, 8407, 679, 15, 507, 357, 5

SHERROD, 175, 47, 34, 21, 17, 13

SMITH, 29087, 2581, 70, 1912, 1396, 18

SPANN, 265, 58, 43, 9, 7, 4

STEWART, 3648, 321, 25, 240, 179, 13

TALIAFERRO, 194, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0

TATE, 1015, 134, 27, 76, 56, 10

TERRELL, 401, 60, 8, 43, 36, 4

THOMPSON, 8826, 916, 12, 640, 469, 4

THORNTON, 1504, 134, 1, 76, 57, 0

TRIPLETT, 77, 25, 12, 11, 11, 5

TURNER, 5742, 585, 8, 411, 290, 4

WALKER, 8492, 814, 51, 576, 405, 23

WELBORNE, 7, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0

WHITE, 9567. 883, 13, 623, 456, 2

WINFREY, 114, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0

WIER, 68, 7, 0, 7, 5, 0

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