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MONROE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, February, 2002

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Monroe County, Mississippi, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Monroe County, Mississippi census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Monroe County, Mississippi census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Monroe County, Mississippi in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Monroe County, Mississippi (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 601) reportedly includes a total of 12,729 slaves. This transcription includes 125 slaveholders who held 30 or more slaves in Monroe County, accounting for 6,008 slaves, or 47% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 685 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Holders on page numbers through 147 were listed as in the Eastern Division of the County, while those on pages 150 and above were listed as in the Western Division. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Mississippi in 1860 there were 481 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,868 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not notice any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Monroe County population included 8,545 whites, 9 "free colored" and 12,729 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased about 1% to 8,631, while the "colored" population had increased about 10% to 14,000. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 21,932 whites, about two and one half times more than 100 years before, while the 1960 total of 12,012 "Negroes"was slightly less than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries.

Where did the Monroe County freed slaves go if they did not stay in the County? Orleans County in Louisiana saw an increase in colored population of almost double between 1860 and 1870, growing to over 50,000, so likely that is where some went. Lowndes and Warren Counties in Mississippi saw increases of 6,000 and 8,000, but no other Mississippi County showed such a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Mississippi colored population only increased by 1%, about 6,000. States that saw more significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Monroe County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ALEXANDER, A. M., 85 slaves, page 143B

ANDERSON, Jno. H., 45 slaves, page 147

BARKER, B. R., 47 slaves, page 181B

BIBB, Henry, 52 slaves, page 166B

BLANCHARD, R., 50 slaves, page 205

BLANCHARD, W. A., 89 slaves, page 200

BRANDON, Sarah, 34 slaves, page 194

BUCHANAN, M. B., 30 slaves, page 150

BURNETT, B. C., 37 slaves, page 189B

BURNETT, Greenville, 42 slaves, page 203

BURNETT, Phoebe, 45 slaves, page 170B

CARUTHERS, Tyree, 49 slaves, page 201

CHAMBERS, M. J., 50 slaves, page 152

CLAPTON, John H., 89 slaves, page 181

CLAPTON, Wm. H., 125 slaves, page 174

CLARK, R. C., 57 slaves, page 153

COLLINS, Jas. M., 34 slaves, page 186

COOPWOOD, Thomas, 37 slaves, page 150B

COX, John Est., 87 slaves, page 161B

COX, John B., 59 slaves, page 190

COZART, Wm., 127 slaves, page 172

CRAWFORD, Wilton, 121 slaves, page 159B

CRUMP, J. J., 42 slaves, page 135

CRUMP, John, 80 slaves, page 1 34B

CUNNINGHAM, J. & W. R., 113 slaves, page 197

DARDEN, James L., 34 slaves, page 192B

DAVIS, Reuben, 45 slaves, page 205B

DAWKINS, Peter, 39 slaves, page 160B

DEARING, James H. Sr., 66 slaves, page 199B

DONALDSON, A. C., 35 slaves, page 193

ECKFORD, M. B., 31 slaves, page 182B

ENGLISH, John G., 50 slaves, page 162

EVANS, W. B., 41 slaves, page 201B

EVANS, W. G., 73 slaves, page 183B

EWING, Stephen, 106 slaves, page 173

FOOSHER?, F. M., 50 slaves, page 154

FORTSON, John T. Est., 81 slaves, page 198

GATHINGS , Lampson, 56 slaves, page 198B

GATHINGS, George W., 35 slaves, page 196B

GAY, J. D., 31 slaves, page 142B

GHOLSON?, S. J., 92 slaves, page 147

GORDON, James, 71 slaves, page 156B

GORDON, Robert, 66 slaves, page 156

GOREE, G. M., 61 slaves, page 155

GUNN, R. B., 50 slaves, page 196

HADLEY, John, 30 slaves, page 146

HARRIS, Overton, 92 slaves, page 178

HATCH, B. L., 97 slaves, page 181B

HAUGHTON, J. H., 79 slaves, page 197B

HAUGHTON, J. P., 44 slaves, page 204

HEARD, J. M. agent, 32 slaves, page 200

HERNDON, Edward, 36 slaves, page 176B

HOGAN, W. B., 66 slaves, page 165

HOLLIDAY, T. & J., 108 slaves, page 177B

HONBURGER, E., 47 slaves, page 150B

JAMISON, John T., 55 slaves, page 201B

JARMAN, J. H., 73 slaves, page 193

JONES, N. B., 57 slaves, page 183

LAGRONE, Adam, 32 slaves, page 151B

LENORE, W. T., 71 slaves, page 207B

LOVE, Columbus, 66 slaves, page 171

LOYD, James M., 65 slaves, page 186

LYLE, R.? H., 70 slaves, page 155B

MCALLISTER, J. D., 58 slaves, page 206

MCALLISTER, U. L., 34 slaves, page 195

MCCLENDON, Charles, 38 slaves, page 195

MCMILLAN, Mary, 71 slaves, page 175

MCMILLAN, W. A., 36 slaves, page 177C (handwritten 61)

MCNAIRY, B. Y.?, 42 slaves, page 177D (handwritten 62)

MCNAIRY, John C., 39 slaves, page 196

MCNAIRY, P. J., 45 slaves, page 173

MCQUISTON, S. S., 44 slaves, page 163 (handwritten as 162)

MERIWETHER, W. P., 45 slaves, page 157

MINNIS, James, 30 slaves, page 166B

MOORE, James, 137 slaves, page 187

MOORE, Lucian R., 43 slaves, page 140

MORGAN, N. L., 32 slaves, page 146B

OGBURN, Wm. M., 58 slaves, page 142

PAINE, James G., 52 slaves, page 192

PAINE, Robert, 80 slaves, page 171

PETERS, Mary A. F., 92 slaves, page 191B

PREWETT, Abner, 32 slaves, page 145B

PREWETT, Brantley, 39 slaves, page 135B

PREWETT, Kirk, 53 slaves, page 182

RANDLE, J. G., 160 slaves, page 184

ROBERTS, Mary, 41 slaves, page 142B

ROGERS, F. M., 65 slaves, page 175B

SAUNDERS, H. M., 31 slaves, page 187

SHEPPARD, B. H., 86 slaves, page 155

SIMS, Mary L., 70 slaves, page 169B

SMITH, C., 46 slaves, page 153B

SPARKS, E. A., 34 slaves, page 157B

STRONG, Elisha, 85 slaves, page 176

STRONG, M. L., 35 slaves, page 180

SYKES, George A., 85 slaves, page 167B

SYKES, Simon B., 118 slaves, page 163 (handwritten as 162)

SYKES, W. A., 217 slaves, page 1168

TAYLOR, Wm., 39 slaves, page 188

TERRILL, R. M., 59 slaves, page 130B

THOMPSON, W. J., 39 slaves, page 136

TROTTER, W. E., 33 slaves, page 186B

TROUP, W. W., 47 slaves, page 143B

TROUP, W. A., 66 slaves, page 143

TRUDALL, John L., 30 slaves, page 206B

WALKER, James, 41 slaves, page 179

WALKER, John A., 147 [enumerator coounted as 151] slaves, page 2007

WALTON, W. L., 40 slaves, page 183B

WARD, Amos, 122 slaves, page 204B

WARE, N. O., 53 slaves, page 170

WATKINS, S. G., 52 slaves, page 200B

WATSON, Asa, 48 slaves, page 202

WHITE, P. H., 50 slaves, page 185B

WHITE, William, 41 slaves, page 133

WHITFIELD, Edward, 40 slaves, page 176B

WHITFIELD, Hatah, 40 slaves, page 161

WHITFIELD, Keeshaw, 81 slaves, page 180

WHITFIELD, N. J. Jr., 47 slaves, page 167

WHITFIELD, Robt. D., 51 slaves, page 195B

WILLIAMS, Ben, 32 slaves, page 188B

WILLIS, Austin, 38 slaves, page 140B

WILLIS, Evalina, 45 slaves, page 141B

WILLIS, L., 41 slaves, page 141B

WORD, Saml., 70 slaves, page 158

WORD, Thomas, 32 slaves, page 192

YOUNG, S. W., 54 slaves, page 203B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ALEXANDER, 3460, 313, 6, 250, 169, 6

ANDERSON, 8173, 838, 18, 621, 455, 8

BARKER, 549, 33, 14, 29, 20, 12

BIBB, 353, 22, 6, 18, 14, 3

BLANCHARD, 199, 38, 32, 30, 28, 25

BRANDON, 308, 33, 6, 19, 12, 1

BUCHANAN, 437, 60, 0, 30, 24, 0

BURNETT, 638, 56, 17, 44, 30, 9

CARUTHERS, 117, 24, 8, 12, 11, 2

CHAMBERS, 1237, 139, 4, 98, 69, 1

CLAPTON, 7, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2

CLARK, 5807, 505, 10, 369, 258, 6

COLLINS, 3004, 406, 3, 339, 263, 2

COOPWOOD, 33, 33, 6, 15, 15, 4

COX, 2288, 265, 14, 172, 138, 13

COZART, 35, 20, 19, 10, 10, 10

CRAWFORD, 1876, 125, 27, 112, 84, 11

CRUMP, 515, 76, 24, 52, 45, 14

CUNNINGHAM, 1016, 87, 7, 30, 23, 2

DARDEN, 294, 31, 4, 29, 19, 3

DAVIS, 13725, 1397, 26, 1038, 743, 16

DAWKINS, 191, 13, 6, 6, 6, 4

DEARING, 71, 17, 11, 3, 3, 1

DONALDSON, 191, 23, 0, 14, 8, 0

ECKFORD, 28, 20, 9, 15, 13, 7

ENGLISH, 466, 29, 8, 22, 19, 7

EVANS, 3275, 339, 29, 255, 184, 9

EWING, 432, 37, 21, 20, 13, 8

FOOSHER?, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

FORTSON, 77, 7, 2, 8, 6, 2

GATHINGS, 25, 21, 18, 9, 9, 7

GAY, 433, 38, 1, 27, 22, 1

GHOLSON?, 49, 9, 2, 4, 2, 0

GORDON, 1952, 230, 2, 150, 122, 1

GOREE, 50, 8, 7, 4, 3, 2

GUNN, 367, 41, 5, 15, 14, 3

HADLEY, 147, 14, 3, 6, 5, 2

HARRIS, 11315, 1074, 31, 736, 547, 18

HATCH, 187, 33, 23, 22, 16, 11

HAUGHTON, 79, 34, 25, 12, 12, 10

HEARD, 357, 37, 6, 17, 14, 2

HERNDON, 246, 17, 7, 5, 3, 1

HOGAN, 516, 50, 15, 38, 28, 6

HOLLIDAY, 237, 41, 19, 32, 22, 12

HONBURGER, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

JAMISON, 217, 39, 0, 16, 11, 0

JARMAN, 80, 20, 11, 12, 12, 6

JONES, 27193, 2500, 37, 1785, 1318, 26

LAGRONE, 16, 13, 7, 8, 8, 5

LENORE, 22, 16, 12, 10, 10, 6

LOVE, 1109, 230, 24, 128, 102, 8

LOYD, 355, 38, 0, 37, 22, 0

LYLE, 142, 14, 0, 13, 8, 0

MCALLISTER, 107, 14, 9, 8, 6, 4

MCCLENDON, 109, 35, 21, 8, 6, 5

MCMILLAN, 367, 56, 29, 36, 31, 16

MCNAIRY, 48, 12, 11, 3, 3, 3

MCQUISTON, 9, 6, 3, 5, 5, 3

MERIWETHER, 80, 9, 1, 2, 2, 1

MINNIS, 43, 5, 5, 3, 3, 3

MOORE, 8698, 1061, 51, 660, 483, 27

MORGAN, 2507, 239, 15, 183, 133, 10

OGBURN, 56, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

PAINE, 507, 98, 22, 49, 41, 9

PETERS, 936, 68, 14, 40, 26, 4

PREWETT, 54, 33, 20, 18, 17, 12

RANDLE, 212, 53, 12, 17, 13, 1

ROBERTS, 3309, 208, 10, 162, 105, 9

ROGERS, 2129, 270, 19, 199, 149, 7

SAUNDERS, 1072, 62, 0, 41, 30, 0

SHEPPARD, 480, 28, 2, 23, 13, 1

SIMS, 1411, 187, 22, 111, 83, 13

SMITH, 29087, 2581, 29, 1912, 1396, 17

SPARKS, 375, 22, 0, 21, 9, 0

STRONG, 573, 135, 33, 70, 61, 15

SYKES, 412, 204, 75, 82, 68, 29

TAYLOR, 11696, 1028, 7, 684, 488, 2

TERRILL, 99, 5, 0, 5, 1, 0

THOMPSON, 8826, 916, 17, 640, 469, 13

TROTTER, 200, 51, 4, 39, 35, 3

TROUP, 87, 15, 7, 9, 9, 5

TRUDALL, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

WALKER, 8492, 814, 51, 576, 405, 21

WALTON, 1110, 182, 19, 113, 86, 11

WARD, 2525, 236, 29, 144, 109, 11

WARE, 998, 96, 3, 65, 51, 1

WATKINS, 2226, 149, 1, 95, 74, 0

WATSON, 3567, 410, 24, 294, 218, 8

WHITE, 9567, 883, 41, 623, 456, 19

WHITFIELD, 689, 165, 81, 70, 62, 22

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2889, 21, 2255, 1616, 9

WILLIS, 2042, 223, 35, 176, 132, 31

WORD, 195, 37, 24, 24, 20, 13

YOUNG, 6185, 690, 51, 468, 348, 16

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