Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   

MADISON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, October 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Madison County, Mississippi, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Madison County, Mississippi census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Madison County, Mississippi census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Madison County, Mississippi in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Madison County, Mississippi (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 600) reportedly includes a total of 18,118 slaves which ranks as the third highest total in the State and the 16th highest in the U.S. in 1860. This transcription includes 148 slaveholders who held 40 or more slaves in Madison County, accounting for 9,964 slaves, or 55% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 817 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Mississippi in 1860 there were 481 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,868 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not find any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders; but the following two individuals were noted: a 100 year old male native African named Drew held by J. L. Andrews on page 410; and92 year old female Hannah held by Jno. A. Magruder on page 460. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Madison County population included 5,260 whites, 4 "free colored" and 18,118 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased about 10% to 5,809, while the "colored" population had dropped about 16% to 15,139. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 9,267 whites, a 76% increase over 1860, but the 1960 total of 23,630 "Negroes"was only about 30% more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries.

Where did the Madison County freed slaves go if they did not stay in the County? Orleans County in Louisiana saw an increase in colored population of almost double between 1860 and 1870, growing to over 50,000, so likely that is where some went. Lowndes and Warren Counties in Mississippi saw increases of 6,000 and 8,000, but no other Mississippi County showed such a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Mississippi colored population only increased by 1%, about 6,000. States that saw more significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Madison County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ANDERSON, Peter, 78 slaves, page 482

ANDREWS & FEARN, 49 slaves, page 4410

AVERITT, Jesse, 50 slaves, page 476

BALDWIN, O.? W., 54 slaves, page 459B

BALDWIN, Wm. A., 63 slaves, page 453B

BALFOUR, Est. W. L., Kimball manager, 77 slaves, page 431

BALFOUR, Jno. W., 48 slaves, page 484

BALLOU, T. C., 76 slaves, page 439B

BASS, Rev. Isaac R., 124 slaves, page 435

BATTLEY, Wm. F., 68 slaves, page 428B

BODDIE, Jno. W., 64 slaves, page 431

BRADFORD, Benj. M., 123 slaves, page 452B

BRISCOE, Jno., 71 slaves, page 499B

BRITTON, W. J., 62 slaves, page 423

BROWN (see also Moore & Brown)

BROWN, James, 54 slaves, page 485

BROWN, Jno. W., 48 slaves, page 483B

CAMERON, Jno. C., 72 slaves, page 436

CAMERON, M., 88 slaves, page 486

CHAMBERS, Benj., 68 slaves, page 390B

CHEATHAM, Jno. H., 45 slaves, page 410B

CHEEK, Doct. Wm. A., 41 slaves, page 454B

CLARKE, Geo. S. Jr., agent Geo. S. Clarke Senr., 42 slaves, page 401B

COLLINS, Est. S., 42 slaves, page 472B

CORDTZS?, E., 67 slaves, page 494

CRATIN?, Jno. T., 53 slaves, page 455

DAVIS, Joseph R., 65 slaves, page 488

DENSON, W. J., 81 slaves, page 400

DICKENS, A. H., Rev. D. E. B. 9Employer), 76 slaves, page 441B

DIVINE, E. F., 41 slaves, page 474B

DOWNS, Judge Jno. W., 40 slaves, page 487B

DULANEY, Dr. N. J., 43 slaves, page 428

DUNLAVY, Dr. James H., 48 slaves, page 483B

ELDER, Jno. M., 144 slaves, page 477B

FLACK, R. K., 55 slaves, page 493B

FLEMING, R. V. W., 40 slaves, page 461

FULTON, Col. D.? M., 51 slaves, page 482B

FULTON, Mrs. Rebecca, 48 slaves, page 486B

GALTNEY, D. K., 51 slaves, page 459

GARRETT, Mrs. Sarah D., 41 slaves, page 390

GEORGE, J. P. & W. F., 47 slaves, page 458

GILMER, D. H., 64 slaves, page 494B

GREAVES, Genl. S. A., 199 slaves, page 408

GREENWOOD, Est. minor heirs, Mrs. S. A. Luckett guardian, 46 slaves, page 444B

GRIFFIN, Genl. Thos. M., 58 slaves, page 437B

HAMBLEN, Edwin, 64 slaves, page 471

HARDY, G. W., 59 slaves, page 497B

HART, Jno. D., 109 slaves, page 395

HAYES, Hugh W., 60 slaves, page 444

HENDERSON, 91 slaves, page 413

HENDERSON, Est. L. F., Wm. M. Catlett manager, 101 slaves, page 411B

HESTER, Chas., 113 slaves, page 485

HILL, F. J., 57 slaves, page 431B

HILL, Wm., 56 slaves, page 409B

HINTON, E. J., 87 slaves, page 402

HINTON, Mrs. C. A., 47 slaves, page 406

HINTON, W. H., 72 slaves, page 401

HOPKINS, Genl. Wm., 73 slaves, page 445

HORN, P. A., 61 slaves, page 416B

HUESTON, W. J., 51 slaves, page 399B

HULME, Geo. J., 41 slaves, page 411

JIGGITS, Dr. L. M., 83 slaves, page 407

JOHNSON, Dr. R. B., 85 slaves, page 449

JOHNSTONE, G. C., 50 slaves, page 429B

JOHNSTONE, Mrs. M. L., 78 slaves, page 440

JONES, Capt. Friley, 46 slaves, page 406B

JONES, Jno. L., 42 slaves, page 470

KEARNEY, Est. C. D., 75 slaves, page 397B

KEARNEY, Gaston, 75 slaves, page 398

KEARNEY, Jno. K., 48 slaves, page 398B

KEARNEY, W. G., 57 slaves, page 397

KYLE, Jno., 69 slaves, page 440B

LAMBETH, Rev. Jno. R., 43 slaves, page 437B

LANIER, S. H., 64 slaves, page 433

LAWSON, Est. H. A. H., 55 slaves, page 392B

LEGGITT, Est. J. W., 43 slaves, page 477

LEGGITT, Hugh S. & sister, 44 slaves, page 481

LEWIS, High, 64 slaves, page 424B

LIPSCOMB, Jno., 57 slaves, page 413B

LOTT, Est. E. W., W. C. Abel manager, 55 slaves, page 446

LOTT, W. B., 122 slaves, page 463

LOVE, Col. Jefferson, 80 slaves, page 499

LOVE, W. C., 40 slaves, page 474

LUCKETT, Wm. R., 64 slaves, page 461B

MAGRUDER, Est. J. H., Mr.? E. C. M., admr., 54 slaves, page 493

MAGRUDER, Jno. A., 46 slaves, page 460

MANLY, James, J. B. Mills manager, 100 slaves, page 415

MANLY, Wm., E. D. Cox overseer, 115 slaves, page 405

MCFEELY, David, 43 slaves, page 402B

MCGEHEE, Chas. C., 40 slaves, page 430B

MCKIE, Dr. M. C., 55 slaves, page 493B

MCWILLIE, Col. Wm., 116 slaves, page 449B

MHOON, James, 56 slaves, page 441

MONTGOMERY, A. J., 49 slaves, page 425B

MONTGOMERY, E. T., 67 slaves, page 400B

MONTGOMERY, Jno., 69 slaves, page 414B

MONTGOMERY, L. F., 72 slaves, page 425

MOORE, Bettie G. & BROWN, S. D. & Mary, Mrs. Susan Davis guardian minor heirs, 60 slaves, page 488B

MOORE, Est. T. J., 42 slaves, page 475B

MOORE, Jno. B., 44 slaves, page 461

MURRELL, Jno. D., 78 slaves, page 426B

NEAL, L. B., 63 slaves, page 427

NICHOLSON, J. J., 65 slaves, page 417

NICHOLSON, Thos. W., Harris overseer, 98 slaves, page 405B

PERKINS, Col. Jesse, 54 slaves, page 430

POWELL, Est. of, Genl. S. A D. Greaves admr., 61 slaves, page 407B

POWELL, J. R., 42 slaves, page 445

PRITCHARD, B. L., Leonard Lee manager, 55 slaves, page 490

PRITCHARD, B. L. Home Place, 85 slaves, page 490B

PRITCHARD, Est. J. S., B. L. Pritchard administrator, 71 slaves, page 489B

PRITCHARD, Mrs. Frances, 41 slaves, page 489

RABB, Mrs. Nancy M., 46 slaves, page 451B

REID, Dr. Wm. M., 95 slaves, page 478

RICHARDSON, E., 52 slaves, page 484B

RICKS, Benj. S., 151 slaves, page 404

RIDLEY, S. J., 48 slaves, page 426

ROBINSON, Jno. Meadow Place, J. M. Tanner overseer, 83 slaves, page 420B

ROBINSON, Jno. Hill Place, J. R. Tucker overseer, 130 slaves, page 419B

ROBINSON, Jno. Sycamore Place, overseer Slocumb, 122 slaves, page 418

ROBINSON, Jno. Valley Place, Tit. Barns overseer, 105 slaves, page 419

ROBINSON, Jno. Cottage Place, Wm. T. H. Hammack overseer, 110 slaves, page 421

ROSS, Geo. A., 80 slaves, page 495

ROSS, Wm. E., 43 slaves, page 428

SANDERS, C. G., 83 slaves, page 476B

SAUNDERS, R. C., 59 slaves, page 481B

SEMMES, Col. Thomas, 97 slaves, page 396

SHACKELFORD, C. C., Waverly Place, Donovan manager, 42 slaves, page 480B

SHACKLEFORD, C. C. Bank Place, S. D. Collins overseer, 49 slaves, page 424

SHACKLEFORD, Judge Thos., 121 slaves, page 496

SHOTWELL & WALES, 70 slaves, page 414

SIMPSON, James, 48 slaves, page 487B

SKIDMORE, C. S., 69V21B

SMITH, Maj. Jno., 61 slaves, page 480

SMITH, Wm., 48 slaves, page 456

STOKES, Saml. J., 82 slaves, page 497

SUMMER, Jno. L. & J. E., 59 slaves, page 391B

SUTHERLAND, P. R., 61 slaves, page 447B

TARPLEY, Est. E.? S., 123 slaves, page 412

THOMAS, Dr. Jas. P., 55 slaves, page 483

THOMAS, Jno. H., 56 slaves, page 496B

THOMPSON, Lewis S., 83 slaves, page 433B

TUPPER, Col. T. C., 58 slaves, page 391

WALKER, Major W. F., 45 slaves, page 438B

WARREN, Jackson, 42 slaves, page 484

WELLS, Mary, 53 slaves, page 429

WILLIAMS, D. G., 46 slaves, page 454

WILLIS, Jno. S., 44 slaves, page 443B

YELLOWLEY?, Est. J. B., Pridgen manager, 110 slaves, page 432

YOUNG, Elijah, 50 slaves, page 466B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ANDERSON, 8178, 838, 32, 621, 455, 19

ANDREWS, 1160, 75, 7, 53, 37, 2

AVERITT, 15, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

BALDWIN, 634, 73, 8, 33, 26, 1

BALFOUR, 7, 4, 0, 2, 2, 0

BALLOU, 11, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BASS, 764, 77, 15, 64, 48, 6

BATTLEY, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BODDIE, 79, 12, 0, 4, 4, 0

BRADFORD, 911, 123, 0, 84, 55, 0

BRISCOE, 286, 33, 11, 18, 14, 4

BRITTON, 273, 33, 6, 27, 20, 2

BROWN, 27013, 2270, 82, 1679, 1198, 38

CAMERON, 345, 33, 3, 26, 22, 2

CHAMBERS, 1237, 139, 39, 98, 69, 14

CHEATHAM, 384, 40, 6, 18, 17, 3

CHEEK, 140, 23, 15, 13, 13, 8

CLARKE, 641, 41, 0, 24, 17, 0

COLLINS, 3004, 406, 30, 339, 263, 18

CORDTZS?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CRATIN?, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0

DAVIS, 13725, 1397, 53, 1038, 743, 28

DENSON, 125, 15, 1, 10, 7, 0

DICKENS, 207, 30, 2, 16, 11, 0

DIVINE, 32, 10, 9, 5, 5, 5

DOWNS, 257, 24, 6, 21, 15, 6

DULANEY, 18, 9, 0, 3, 3, 0

DUNLAVY, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

ELDER, 249, 19, 3, 8, 5, 2

FEARN, 24, 3, 2, 0, 0, 0

FLACK, 34, 2, 2, 1, 0, 0

FLEMING, 722, 68, 14, 48, 31, 10

FULTON, 348, 39, 5, 21, 17, 2

GALTNEY, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1

GARRETT, 1025, 106, 19, 66, 50, 12

GEORGE, 1085, 62, 11, 46, 30, 5

GILMER, 230, 30, 0, 16, 16, 0

GREAVES, 14, 4, 1, 4, 4, 1

GREENWOOD, 227, 41, 27, 19, 14, 10

GRIFFIN, 2464, 335, 26, 256, 190, 8

HAMBLEN, 33, 22, 22, 14, 13, 13

HARDY, 1078, 129, 6, 69, 54, 2

HART, 1129, 105, 25

HAYES, 561, 36, 11, 30, 20, 5

HENDERSON, 3706, 352, 23, 285, 180, 10

HESTER, 359, 36, 2, 31, 25, 0

HILL, 6675, 484, 26, 313, 211, 8

HINTON, 615, 69, 16, 39, 36, 4

HOPKINS, 1286, 83, 3, 58, 39, 1

HORN, 379, 43, 1, 25, 18, 1

HUESTON, 15, 2, 0, 1, 1, 0

HULME, 5, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1

JIGGITS, 15, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0

JOHNSON, 33402, 2900, 125, 2240, 1541, 67

JOHNSTONE, 12, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

JONES, 27193, 2500, 177, 1785, 1318, 96

KEARNEY, 118, 7, 2, 4, 3, 0

KYLE, 228, 29, 3, 20, 10, 0

LAMBETH, 28, 2, 0, 1, 1, 0

LANIER, 260, 32, 2, 15, 11, 0

LAWSON, 1047, 66, 12, 37, 25, 5

LEGGITT, 10, 4, 3, 2, 2, 2

LEWIS, 8707, 690, 24, 528, 366, 7

LIPSCOMB, 385, 24, 1, 15, 12, 1

LOTT, 263, 112, 22, 75, 65, 11

LOVE, 1109, 230, 28, 128, 102, 18

LUCKETT, 171, 92, 84, 31, 31, 26

MAGRUDER, 175, 4, 3, 1, 1, 1

MANLY, 171, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0

MCFEELY, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MCGEHEE, 185, 74, 0, 49, 48, 0

MCKIE, 39, 19, 8, 12, 9, 3

MCWILLIE, 9, 3, 2, 1, 1, 0

MHOON, 34, 27, 8, 6, 6, 2

MONTGOMERY, 1303, 172, 19, 139, 103, 12

MOORE, 8698, 1061, 68, 660, 483, 32

MURRELL, 120, 11, 6, 7, 4, 1

NEAL, 1145, 99, 12, 65, 49, 9

NICHOLSON, 453, 89, 5, 48, 39, 1

PERKINS, 1897, 263, 4

POWELL, 2420, 206, 25, 139, 107, 10

PRITCHARD, 114, 11, 2, 7, 6, 1

RABB, 67, 5, 1, 4, 2, 0

REID, 1023, 89, 15, 54, 45, 8

RICHARDSON, 3741, 271, 13, 183, 123, 6

RICKS, 351, 14, 6, 13, 6, 1

RIDLEY, 316, 30, 9, 23, 20, 8

ROBINSON, 8046, 715, 25, 511, 356, 13

ROSS, 3113, 332, 25, 267, 200, 18

SANDERS, 3090, 360, 26, 261, 182, 14

SAUNDERS, 1072, 62, 2, 41, 30, 2

SEMMES, 25, 13, 11, 4, 4, 3

SHACKELFORD, 179, 29, 9, 16, 12, 4

SHACKLEFORD, 138, 18, 0, 10, 6, 0

SHOTWELL, 50, 22, 0, 7, 6, 0

SIMPSON, 1788, 133, 35, 90, 60, 14

SKIDMORE, 22, 8, 2, 6, 5, 2

SMITH, 29087, 2581, 126, 1912, 1396, 67

STOKES, 946, 117, 13, 59, 43, 4

SUMMER, 80, 9, 1, 8, 4, 0

SUTHERLAND, 88, 24, 22, 15, 14, 12

TARPLEY, 45, 4, 2, 2, 2, 1

THOMAS, 11418, 945, 61, 726, 526, 27

THOMPSON, 8826, 916, 66, 640, 469, 21

TUPPER, 15, 11, 9, 7, 7, 5

WALES, 66, 14, 12, 4, 3, 3

WALKER, 8492, 814, 36, 576, 405, 20

WARREN, 1697, 182, 3, 140, 89, 2

WELLS, 1647, 192, 5, 142, 109, 3

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2889, 122, 2265, 1616, 69

WILLIS, 2042, 223, 12, 176, 132, 5

YELLOWLEY?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

YOUNG, 6185, 690, 28, 468, 348, 14

Return to Home and Links Page

You are the visitor to this page.