Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   

HINDS COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, October 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Hinds County, Mississippi, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Hinds County, Mississippi census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Hinds County, Mississippi census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Hinds County, Mississippi in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Hinds County, Mississippi (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 597) reportedly includes a total of 22,363 slaves which ranks as the highest total in the State and the ninth highest in the U.S. in 1860. This transcription includes 140 slaveholders who held 40 or more slaves in Hinds County, accounting for 8,860 slaves, or 39% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 1,281 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first census page on which they were listed. No localities were shown except for those under page 200, who were in the City of Jackson, and those from page 201 to 206B, who were in Township 5. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Mississippi in 1860 there were 481 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,868 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did notice the following such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders: female 100 Racheal held by Starsby on page 215B; 100 male Curtis held by Campbell on 236B; 102 male Jo(?) held by Cox on 240; 100 male Nelson held by Petre on 243B; 100 female Janey held by A. J. Rimes on page 288B; and 100 male Sam held by J. T. Casey on 330B. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Hinds County population included 8,940 whites, 36 "free colored" and 22,363 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased 10% to 9,829, and the "colored" population had dropped about 8% to 20,659. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 112,205 whites, more than a twelve fold increase, but the 1960 total of 94,750 "Negroes"was only about four times what the colored population had been 100 years before.) It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries.

Where did the Hinds County freed slaves go if they did not stay in the County? Orleans County in Louisiana saw an increase in colored population of almost double between 1860 and 1870, growing to over 50,000, so likely that is where some went. Lowndes and Warren Counties in Mississippi saw increases of 6,000 and 8,000, but no other Mississippi County showed such a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Mississippi colored population only increased by 1%, about 6,000. States that saw more significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Hinds County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ANDERSON, Thos. S., 102 slaves, page 201

ANDREW?, Jno. D., 100 slaves, page 306B

ANDREWS, L. D., 41 slaves, page 270

ATKINSON, W. H., 40 slaves, page 211B

AUSTIN, W. J., 69 slaves, page 210B

BARRETT, Est. O., O. P. Wright Admr., 119 slaves, page 329

BARROWS, David, 106 slaves, page 271B

BESAMOON?, M. A., 86 slaves, page 197B

BETHEA, S. B. owner, H. H. Burnett manager, 128 slaves, page 206B

BIRDSONG, D. M., 49 slaves, page 247B

BIRDSONG, J. J., 104 slaves, page 331B

BLUNT, B., 41 slaves, page 262

BODDIE, Geo., 93 slaves, page 326

BOLLS, M. A. & D. S., 43 slaves, page 255

BOLTON, T. J., 61 slaves, page 230

BOWLES, S. R., 80 slaves, page 232

BRACY, W. J., 44 slaves, page 205B

BROWN, A. J., 58 slaves, page 230B

BROWN, A. G., 78 slaves, page 289

BROWN, B. L., 44 slaves, page 286B

BROWN, W. S., 44 slaves, page 213B

BRYANT, W. R., W. P. Garland Guard. For, 50 slaves, page 222B

BURNETT, J. W., 50 slaves, page 286

BUSH, A. P., 65 slaves, page 248

CABANES?, E. W., 54 slaves, page 210

CAMPBELL, Hugh, 106 slaves, page 236B

CASTERCIND?, W., 68 slaves, page 282

CATCHINGS, A., 68 slaves, page 206B

CATCHINGS, T. J., 54 slaves, page 250

CHITLON (see Dameron & Chitlon)

CLARK, A., Exr. Robt. Clark, 43 slaves, page 245B

CLARK, S. V., 50 slaves, page 213B

COKER, S. E., 40 slaves, page 256

COLLINS, J. H., 65 slaves, page 289B

COLLINS, Reuben, 77 slaves, page 313B

COOK, Evan, 41 slaves, page 204B

COOK, J. S., 62 slaves, page 225

COOK, M. L., 60 slaves, page 253B

CORDELL, Est. R., O. P. Wright Agt., 64 slaves, page 330

CORDELL, Lucy, 56 slaves, page 330B

COX, P. B., 60 slaves, page 240

DABNEY, Thos. S., 154 slaves, page 301B

DAMERON & CHITLON, owners, S. D. Brown, employer, 55 slaves, page 235B

DAVIS, C., 46 slaves, page 320B

DICKSON, Est. Z., J. Henderson Exr., 77 slaves, page 205

DICKSON, J., 63 slaves, page 303B

DICKSON, Lindsey, 51 slaves, page 203

ECHOLS, C. W., W. S. Satcher & M. A. Satcher Guard. Minor heirs, 43 slaves, page 246B

EDWARDS, Richard O., 124 slaves, page 310B

ELLIOTT, Robert T., 67 slaves, page 268B

FONTAINE, Edward, 45 slaves, page 219

GARLAND, Burr, 109 slaves, page 202

GEIGER (see Smith & Geiger)

GIBBS, H. D., 47 slaves, page 311B

GIBSON, John A. & Mary, 90 slaves, page 268

GOLD, J. P., 42 slaves, page 248B

GRAVES, J. M., 62 slaves, page 219B

GREAVES, J. B., 48 slaves, page 227B

GREAVES, W. F., 42 slaves, page 220

HACKLER, Martin, 42 slaves, page 263

HALL, G. B., 42 slaves, page 272B

HALL, J. B., 49 slaves, page 234B

HAMILTON, C. D., 99 slaves, page 271

HENDERSON, James, 68 slaves, page 204B

HENRY, L. B., 47 slaves, page 238B

HESTER, W., 70 slaves, page 287

HINTER, W. H., 44 slaves, page 213

HOLMES, T. J., 55 slaves, page 206

HUDSON, L., 50 slaves, page 290

JONES, Dr. Wm. S., 121 slaves, page 293

KELLY, S. D., 70 slaves, page 234

KIDD, Thomas, 66 slaves, page 254B

LEWIS, P. R., 47 slaves, page 227

MARSHALL, B. D., 42 slaves, page 278B

MARTIN , T. J., 54 slaves, page 292B

MCGAVIN, A. M. Exr., 46 slaves, page 280B

MCNEILL, J., 40 slaves, page 303

MELLON, T. A., 52 slaves, page 233

MILLER, Robert, 52 slaves, page 267

MIMS, L., 58 slaves, page 288

MOFFIT, M. W., 65 slaves, page 229

MONCURE, J. E., 66 slaves, page 296B

MOODY, E., 42 slaves, page 195B

MOORE, M. A., 67 slaves, page 290B

MORRISON, M., 80 slaves, page 258B

MOSELY, W. O., 65 slaves, page 216B

MOSS, Robt., 69 slaves, page 259B

NEWMAN, A. M., 50 slaves, page 263B

NEWMAN, E. M., 47 slaves, page 325B

NICHOLS, M. W., 40 slaves, page 214B

NUTT, R., 64 slaves, page 317

OLIVER, W. H.,41 slaves, page 307B

PADELFORD, T. D., 70 slaves, page 257B

PATRICK, E., 58 slaves, page 2111

PEEBLES, J. D., 57 slaves, page 242B

PETRE, L. W., F. S. Hunt Guard. Minor heirs, 80 slaves, page 244B

PETRE, L. W. Est, F. S. Hunt Guard., 80 slaves, page 243B

PHILIPS, M. W., 66 slaves, page 260

POPE, A. L., 46 slaves, page 304

PORTER, William, 56 slaves, page 223B

RANEY, John, 48 slaves, page 224B

REYNOLDS, Joel, 88 slaves, page 243

RICHARDS, W., 69 slaves, page 322

RICHEY, F. N., 63 slaves, page 240B

RIMES, L. J., 60 slaves, page 291

RIVES, M. B., 40 slaves, page 273B

ROACH, J. 98 slaves, page 310

ROBERTS, Isaac, 72 slaves, page 231

ROSS, James B., 54 slaves, page 214

SHARKEY, P., 63 slaves, page 239

SHEARER, O.? V., 47 slaves, page 325B

SHOTWELL, B., 68 slaves, page 216

SIMMONS, S. E., 47 slaves, page 236

SIVELY, R., 69 slaves, page 277B

SIVLEY, H., 80 slaves, page 299

SIZER, H. E., 42 slaves, page 194

SMART, Wm. B., 56 slaves, page 297

SMILEY, J. J., 48 slaves, page 327

SMITH & GEIGER, 58 slaves, page 255B

SMITH, Chas. L., 100 slaves, page 325

SMITH, H. Cam., 71 slaves, page 302B

SMITH, J. P., 64 slaves, page 242

SMITH, Mrs. E. H., 72 slaves, page 328

SMITH, R. H., 67 slaves, page 254

SMITH, W. Hal, 63 slaves, page 251

STACKHOUSE, H. W., 75 slaves, page 304B

STARSBY, P. T., 47 slaves, page 215B

SUMMERS, Geo W., 76 slaves, page 301

TAYLOR, W. B., 49 slaves, page 330B

TERRY, Joe? M., 102 slaves, page 297B

TERRY, W. D., 69 slaves, page 285B

THOMPSON, N. H., Home Place, 53 slaves, page 212B

THOMPSON, N. H., Henry Place, 52 slaves, page 212B

TINNAN, Brown, 40 slaves, page 220B

WALTON, Leone, 48 slaves, page 266

WASHINGTON, H. P., 63 slaves, page 314

WATSON, John F., 203 slaves, page 261

WELBORN, J. W., 54 slaves, page 227B

WELLS, Thomas, 42 slaves, page 262B

WHITFIELD, Benj., 80V17B

WHITFIELD, Geo., 40 slaves, page 218B

YATES, D., 53 slaves, page 314B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ANDERSON, 8173, 838, 75, 621, 435, 33

ANDREW?, 210, 12, 3, 10, 7, 2

ANDREWS, 1160, 75, 7, 53, 37, 5

ATKINSON, 465, 34, 3, 27, 18, 2

AUSTIN, 1181, 124, 13, 79, 56, 7

BARRETT, 406, 14, 0, 11, 7, 0

BARROWS, 24, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0

BESAMOON?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BETHEA, 103, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BIRDSONG, 88, 12, 10, 7, 6, 6

BLUNT, 356, 29, 4, 11, 8, 2

BODDIE, 79, 12, 0, 4, 4, 0

BOLLS, 26, 9, 5, 6, 6, 5

BOLTON, 284, 46, 3, 41, 32, 3

BOWLES, 296, 37, 0, 26, 16, 0

BRACY, 116, 23, 1, 21, 15, 1

BROWN, 27013, 2270, 164, 1679, 1198, 92

BRYANT, 2129, 147, 11, 87, 58, 5

BURNETT, 638, 56, 4, 44, 30, 4

BUSH, 1228, 111, 3, 57, 41, 1

CABANES?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CAMPBELL, 2897, 235, 9, 166, 116, 4

CASTERCIND?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CATCHINGS, 37, 22, 3, 17, 17, 1

CHITLON, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CLARK, 5807, 505, 25, 369, 258, 15

COKER, 158, 16, 3, 4, 3, 1

COLLINS, 3004, 406, 21, 339, 263, 15

COOK, 3149, 283, 13, 182, 146, 8

CORDELL, 14, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

COX, 2288, 265, 13, 172, 138, 7

DABNEY, 337, 25, 2, 11, 9, 0

DAMERON, 31, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0

DAVIS, 13725, 1397, 76, 1038, 743, 35

DICKSON, 1134, 97, 8, 65, 45, 1

ECHOLS, 247, 53, 4, 27, 22, 2

EDWARDS, 3741, 358, 17, 244, 182, 10

ELLIOTT, 807, 37, 0, 22, 10, 0

FONTAINE, 51, 4, 0, 2, 1, 0

GARLAND, 286, 20, 4, 12, 7, 1

GEIGER, 51, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

GIBBS, 1191, 82, 3, 57, 46, 1

GIBSON, 2529, 270, 9, 235, 167, 3

GOLD, 42, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0

GRAVES, 1232, 76, 0, 67, 46, 0

GREAVES, 14, 4, 3, 4, 4, 3

HACKLER, 5, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

HALL, 5875, 470, 23, 332, 239, 11

HAMILTON, 2446, 195, 8, 136, 105, 6

HENDERSON, 3706, 352, 27, 285, 180, 12

HENRY, 2782, 209, 19, 152, 100, 9

HESTER, 359, 36, 6, 31, 25, 5

HINTER, 10, 3, 1, 3, 3, 1

HOLMES, 2804, 271, 16, 204, 155, 7

HUDSON, 1291, 181, 8, 98, 81, 2

JONES, 27193, 2500, 143

KELLY, 1747, 201, 21, 142, 105, 13

KIDD, 264, 60, 0, 36, 33, 0

LEWIS, 8707, 690, 66, 528, 366, 38

MARSHALL, 1756, 122, 10, 91, 60, 5

MARTIN, 5318, 573, 31, 399, 323, 16

MCGAVIN, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MCNEILL, 246, 16, 1, 8, 8, 0

MELLON, 28, 6, 1, 3, 3, 1

MILLER, 6577, 689, 33, 454, 335, 27

MIMS, 267, 21, 3, 14, 11, 3

MOFFIT, 26, 4, 1, 3, 2, 0

MONCURE, 3, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0

MOODY, 716, 79, 2, 36, 26, 1

MOORE, 8698, 1051, 56, 660, 483, 35

MORRISON, 751, 62, 11, 36, 23, 5

MOSELY, 620, 66, 9, 43, 35, 6

MOSS, 935, 48, 3, 28, 20, 3

NEWMAN, 649, 65, 7

NICHOLS, 977, 115, 11, 82, 66, 9

NUTT, 60, 6, 2, 2, 1, 1

OLIVER, 1482, 142, 5, 82, 59, 3

PADELFORD, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

PATRICK, 448, 41, 3, 32, 23, 0

PEEBLES, 193, 8, 0, 4, 3, 0

PETRE, 16, 5, 1, 4, 4, 0

PHILIPS, 748, 76, 7, 49, 35, 4

POPE, 989, 118, 10, 74, 56, 7

PORTER, 2334, 238, 18, 164, 122, 13

RANEY, 116, 15, 2, 9, 6, 0

REYNOLDS, 1197, 77, 4, 63, 42, 3

RICHARDS, 892, 81, 16, 65, 43, 10

RICHEY, 81, 9, 3, 7, 6, 3

RIMES, 9, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

RIVES, 166, 17, 1, 13, 11, 1

ROACH, 375, 33, 2, 22, 16, 1

ROBERTS, 3309, 208, 10, 162, 105, 7

ROSS, 3113, 332, 26, 267, 200, 19

SHARKEY, 22, 15, 2, 14, 12, 2

SHEARER, 51, 6, 0, 2, 2, 0

SHOTWELL, 50, 22, 0, 7, 6, 0

SIMMONS, 2845, 280, 5, 187, 141, 3

SIVELY, 3, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0

SIZER, 10, 6, 3, 5, 5, 2

SMART, 267, 18, 0, 14, 10, 0

SMILEY, 173, 27, 2, 23, 19, 1

SMITH, 29087, 2581, 147, 1912, 1396, 91

STACKHOUSE, 43, 22, 9, 22, 18, 8

STARSBY, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

SUMMERS, 369, 30, 2, 18, 14, 1

TAYLOR, 11696, 1028, 80, 684, 488, 50

TERRY, 855, 88, 11, 66, 47, 8

THOMPSON, 8826, 916, 47, 640, 469, 23

TINNAN, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

WALTON, 1110, 182, 9, 113, 86, 6

WASHINGTON, 9075, 918, 84, 729, 493, 47

WATSON, 3567., 410, 33, 294, 218, 18

WELBORN, 49, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0

WELLS, 1647, 192, 18, 142, 109, 13

WHITFIELD, 689, 165, 3, 70, 62, 1

YATES, 443, 46, 7, 30, 28, 6

Return to Home and Links Page

You are the visitor to this page.