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CLAIBORNE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, October 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Claiborne County, Mississippi, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Claiborne County, Mississippi census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Claiborne County, Mississippi census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Claiborne County, Mississippi in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Claiborne County, Mississippi (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 596) reportedly includes a total of 12,296 slaves. This transcription includes 117 slaveholders who held 40 or more slaves in Claiborne County, accounting for 8,808 slaves, or 71% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 307 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the Police District wher counted, the number of the Police District and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Mississippi in 1860 there were 481 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,868 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not find any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Claiborne County population included 3,339 whites, 44 "free colored" and 12,296 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white remained about the same at 3,390, while the "colored" population had dropped 19% to 9,996. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 2,600 whites, about 22% less than in 1860, and the 1960 total of 8,239 "Negroes"was only about 33% less than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries.

Where did the Claiborne County freed slaves go if they did not stay in the County? Orleans County in Louisiana saw an increase in colored population of almost double between 1860 and 1870, growing to over 50,000, so likely that is where some went. Lowndes and Warren Counties in Mississippi saw increases of 6,000 and 8,000, but no other Mississippi County showed such a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Mississippi colored population only increased by 1%, about 6,000. States that saw more significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Claiborne County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

BEATRON?S. R., 42 slaves, Dist. 1, page 416

BUCK, C. E., 91 slaves, Dist. 1, page 416

FREELAND, Thomas, 76 slaves, Dist. 1, page 417B

EVENS, Annie, 111 slaves, Dist. 1, page 418B

SNODGRASS, William, 70 slaves, Dist. 1, page 419

CRANE, F. R., 120 slaves, Dist. 1, page 420

WATSON, James, 80 slaves, Dist. 1, page 420B

SIMS, W., W. Andrews agent for, 47 slaves, Dist. 1, page 422

DANIEL, Smith, 150 slaves, Dist. 1, page 422

GILL, A. P., 50 slaves, Dist. 1, page 423

YOUNG, William, 103 slaves, Dist. 1, page 423B

DOHAN, D. J., 64 slaves, Dist. 1, page 424

VALENTINE, R., 200 slaves, Dist. 1, page 424B

MURDOCK, J., J. A. Wise agent for, 112 slaves, Dist. 1, page 426

MURDOCK, J., J. Twinn agent for, 54 slaves, Dist. 1, page 427

BRISCOE, Jeff?, B. Myhant agent for, 50 slaves, Dist. 1, page 427B

SPROTT, W. D., 43 slaves, Dist. 2, page 428

HUNTER, M., 56 slaves, Dist. 2, page 428

DISHAROON?, L., 42 slaves, Dist. 2, page 428B

BERRY?, T.? G.?, 107 slaves, Dist. 2, page 428B

COFFEE, Mary B., 42 slaves, Dist. 2, page 429B

RAGSDALE, F. B., 66 slaves, Dist. 2, page 430B

STONE, Mary, 54 slaves, Dist. 2, page 431

SESSIONS, Mrs. M., 106 slaves, Dist. 2, page 431B

HUMPHRIES, Samuel, 52 slaves, Dist. 2, page 432

BARNES, Thomas, 51 slaves, Dist. 2, page 432B

HAMILTON, C. D., 96 slaves, Dist. 2, page 432B (ends on 435)

HAMILTON, C. D., Dover? Place, 42 slaves, Dist. 2, page 435

HUMPHRIES, G. W., 80 slaves, Dist. 2, ends on page 434

PRINCE, Mrs. 46 slaves, Dist. 2, page 435B

HUMPHRIES, Geo., Home Place, 63 slaves, Dist. 2, page 435B

HUMPHRIES, Geo., Big Place, 56 slaves, Dist. 2, page 436

HUMPHRIES, Daniel, 68 slaves, Dist. 2, page 436B

THRASHER, J. B., 182 slaves, Dist. 2, page 437

BOYD, Bolland, 120 slaves, Dist. 2, page 438

GIBSON, J. A., 40 slaves, Dist. 2, page 439

MARSHALL, L. R., 96 slaves, Dist. 3, page 440B

INGRAHAM, A., 74 slaves, Dist. 3, page 441

MAURY, J.? H., 53 slaves, Dist. 3, page 441B

ELLIS, D. C., 47 slaves, Dist. 3, page 442

MOORE, J. T., N. A. Ragland agent for, 108 slaves, Dist. 3, page 442

POWERS, H. G., 98 slaves, Dist. 3, page 443

FLOWERS, P. G., 141 slaves, Dist. 3, page 444

PIPES, James, 59 slaves, Dist. 3, page 445

BROWN, T. W., 90 slaves, Dist. 3, page 445B

REGAN, Joseph, 65 slaves, Dist. 3, page 448

HAMER, W. H., 43 slaves, Dist. 3, page 448B

FISHER, John, 41 slaves, Dist. 3, page 448B

OWENS, Thomas, 79 slaves, Dist. 3, page 449

LUM, S. H., 66 slaves, Dist. 3, page 449B

LUM, William, 96 slaves, Dist. 3, page 450

HARDING, Richard, 93 slaves, Dist. 3, page 450B

WRIGHT, Martha M., 98 slaves, Dist. 3, page 451B

BROCK, Joseph H., 60 slaves, Dist. 3, page 452

BALDWIN, L. M., 73 slaves, Dist. 4, page 454

HUMPHREYS, J. C., 72 slaves, Dist. 4, page 454

SMITH, Mrs. B., 120 slaves, Dist. 4, page 454B

WATSON, J. W., 108 slaves, Dist. 4, page 455B

PATTERSON, W. A., 49 slaves, Dist. 4, page 456

WRIGHT, George S., 44 slaves, Dist. 4, page 456B

TORREY, J. L., 40 slaves, Dist. 4, page 456B

COOPER, Mrs., T. Jones agent for, 75 slaves, Dist. 4, page 457

PARKS, A. P., 70 slaves, Dist. 4, page 457B

BRIDGERS, Samuel P., 43 slaves, Dist. 4, page 458

BRISCOE, E. C., 61 slaves, Dist. 4, page 458B

DEVENPORT, David, 65 slaves, Dist. 4, page 459

GRADDICK, Catherine, 60 slaves, Dist. 4, page 459B

GRADDICK, Fannie, 97 slaves, Dist. 4, page 460

HULL, P. C., 85 slaves, Dist. 4, page 460B

MORE, John T., Fairview Place, 154 slaves, Dist. 4, page 461

HUTCHINSON, J.? A., 44 slaves, Dist. 4, page 462B

MCCALEB, Jordiana?, 69 slaves, Dist. 4, page 463

MITCHELL, Harriet, 46 slaves, Dist. 4, page 463B

MARTIN, W. H., 62 slaves, Dist. 4, page 464

DEVENPORT, E., 70 slaves, Dist. 4, page 464

CLARK, Wm., 50 slaves, Dist. 4, page 464B

LAKE, Geo., 70 slaves, Dist. 4, page 465

MCCALEB, A. F., 100 slaves, Dist. 4, page 465B

BURNES?, C. R., 40 slaves, Dist. 4, page 466

MCCALEB, E. H., 65 slaves, Dist. 4, page 467

JONES, Martha, 53 slaves, Dist. 4, page 467B

STAMPS, Volney, 103 slaves, Dist. 4, page 468B

SHIELDS, Aratus, 93 slaves, Dist. 4, page 469

PATTON, Robert, 41 slaves, Dist. 4, page 469B

JONES, A. P. Md.?, 57 slaves, Dist. 4, page 470

COOPER, Mary, 43 slaves, Dist. 4, page 471B

HULBERT, M. N., 77 slaves, Dist. 4, page 472

STILES, David, 80 slaves, Dist. 4, page 472B

CLARKE, Charles R., 86 slaves, Dist. 4, page 473

MAGRUDER, T. B., 52 slaves, Dist. 5, page 474

ROWAN, A. J., 80 slaves, Dist. 5, page 474

DARDEN, Geo., 46 slaves, Dist. 5, page 475

MOSELY, J. F., 72 slaves, Dist. 5, page 475

GRIFFING, D. C., 69 slaves, Dist. 5, page 475B

WELLS, John 52 slaves, Dist. 5, page 477B

JEFFRIES, E. F., Home Place, 101 slaves, Dist. 5, page 478B

JEFFERIES, E. F., Greenwood Place, 102 slaves, Dist. 5, page 479

LATHAM,, T. M., 42 slaves, Dist. 5, page 479B

RUSSUM, Wm. P., 95 slaves, Dist. 5, page 480

MAGRUDER, J. M., 51 slaves, Dist. 5, page 480B

WOODS, James, 42 slaves, Dist. 5, page 481

DAVENPORT, J. 95 slaves, Dist. 5, page 481B

HUMPHREYS, G., Wm. Stampley agent for, 86 slaves, Dist. 5, page 482

JEFFRIES, Nathaniel, 96 slaves, Dist. 5, page 482B

JEFFRIES, Edward, 42 slaves, Dist. 5, page 483B

SHAEFFER, S. P., 56 slaves, Dist. 5, page 483B

PATTERSON, D. L., 83 slaves, Dist. 5, page 484

CALHOUN, J. E., 76 slaves, Dist. 5, page 484B

ARCHER, R, T., Home Place, 138 slaves, Dist. 5, page 485B

ARCHER, R. T., Piney Woods Place, 83 slaves, Dist. 5, page 486

MONTGOMERY, J. A., 181 slaves, Dist. 5, page 487

YOUNG, Thomas, 72 slaves, Dist. 5, page 488B

PERSON, J. P., 100 slaves, Dist. 5, page 488B

WINTER, Adam, 51 slaves, Dist. 5, page 490

MAGRUDER, Thomas, 51 slaves, Dist. 5, page 490

HUMPHREYS, B. Jr., 90 slaves, Dist. 5, page 490B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ARCHER, 358, 37, 3, 26, 22, 0

BALDWIN, 634, 73, 1, 33, 26, 0

BARNES, 2155, 253, 31, 194, 162, 24

BEATRON?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BERRY?, 1958, 186, 6, 144, 110, 5

BOYD, 1905, 183, 3, 109, 87, 1

BRIDGERS, 64, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1

BRISCOE, 286, 33, 2, 18, 14, 1

BROCK, 335, 18, 0, 13, 9, 0

BROWN, 27013, 2270, 77, 1679, 1198, 43

BUCK, 322, 45, 4, 31, 25, 1

BURNES?, 160, 20, 1, 19, 11, 1

CALHOUN, 560, 61, 1, 38, 30, 1

CLARK, 5807, 505, 25, 369, 258, 20

CLARKE, 641, 41, 2, 24, 17, 2

COFFEE, 216, 22, 0, 17, 13, 0

COOPER, 3459, 292, 6, 210, 138, 2

CRANE, 181, 22, 0, 18, 13, 0

DANIEL, 1765, 95, 1, 57, 43, 0

DARDEN, 294, 31, 3, 29, 19, 3

DAVENPORT, 510, 49, 15, 32, 26, 13

DEVENPORT, 145, 20, 0, 15, 14, 0

DISHAROON?, 8, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

DOHAN, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

ELLIS, 2094, 281, 8, 212, 158, 5

EVENS, 180, 25, 0, 15, 13, 0

FISHER, 1953, 167, 6, 103, 77, 4

FLOWERS, 470, 119, 12, 84, 78, 10

FREELAND, 91, 4, 0, 5, 4, 0

GIBSON, 2529, 270, 18, 235, 167, 13

GILL, 591, 49, 0, 31, 24, 0

GRADDICK, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

GRIFFING, 10, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0

HAMER, 97, 52, 0, 26, 24, 0

HAMILTON, 2446, 195, 6, 136, 105, 4

HARDING, 286, 13, 0, 8, 8, 0

HULBERT, 21, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

HULL, 207, 29, 0, 16, 14, 0

HUMPHREYS, 134, 19, 9, 15, 11, 6

HUMPHRIES, 176, 47, 1, 26, 25, 1

HUNTER, 2838, 224, 5, 174, 117, 4

HUTCHINSON, 367, 8, 0, 10, 5, 0

INGRAHAM, 123, 10, 0, 5, 5, 0

JEFFRIES, 302, 84, 3, 22, 21, 2

JONES, 27193, 2500, 68, 1785, 1318, 32

LAKE, 190, 29, 2, 19, 15, 2

LATHAM, 184, 19, 1, 13, 12, 1

LUM, 19, 2, 0, 2, 1, 0

MAGRUDER, 175, 4, 0, 1, 1, 0

MARSHALL, 1756, 122, 6, 91, 60, 3

MARTIN, 5318, 573, 11, 399, 323, 8

MAURY, 39, 10, 1, 4, 3, 1

MCCALEB, 29, 18, 0, 11, 9, 0

MITCHELL, 4089, 339, 10, 224, 163, 5

MONTGOMERY, 1303, 172, 7, 139, 103, 3

MOORE, 8698, 1061, 22, 660, 483, 17

MORE, 402, 23, 0, 18, 14, 0

MOSELY, 620, 66, 3, 43, 35, 3

MURDOCK, 139, 41, 1, 26, 19, 1

OWENS, 1747, 177, 5, 133, 87, 2

PARKS, 920, 64, 3, 42, 34, 3

PATTERSON, 2478, 224, 5, 136, 110, 2

PATTON, 675, 103, 1, 56, 44, 1

PERSON, 144, 14, 1, 4, 3, 0

PIPES, 53, 10, 0, 11, 9, 0

POWERS, 516, 61, 7, 32, 29, 3

PRINCE, 619, 60, 2, 33, 20, 1

RAGSDALE, 90, 16, 0, 14, 10, 0

REGAN, 32, 7, 0, 7, 7, 0

ROWAN, 92, 17, 0, 13, 12, 0

RUSSUM, 22, 10, 1, 7, 6, 1

SESSIONS, 85, 11, 0, 10, 7, 0

SHAEFFER, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

SHIELDS, 471, 61, 12, 52, 38, 10

SIMS, 1411, 187, 5, 111, 83, 2

SMITH, 29087, 2581, 67, 1912, 1396, 40

SNODGRASS, 39, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

SPROTT, 9, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

STAMPS, 147, 33, 2, 33, 27, 2

STILES, 122, 5, 1, 4, 2, 1

STONE, 1070, 50, 0, 31, 18, 0

THRASHER, 93, 2, 1, 3, 1, 1

TORREY, 20, 13, 0, 9, 9, 0

VALENTINE, 543, 30, 0, 18, 13, 0

WATSON, 3567, 410, 20, 294, 218, 13

WELLS, 1647, 192, 16, 142, 109, 10

WINTER, 141, 49, 1, 27, 25, 1

WOODS, 2026, 249, 16, 184, 130, 11

WRIGHT, 5428, 355, 9, 235, 158, 3

YOUNG, 6185, 690, 20, 468, 348, 19

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