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TENSAS PARISH, LOUISIANA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, April 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Tensas Parish, Louisiana, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Tensas Parish, Louisiana census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Tensas Parish, Louisiana census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the Parish. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral Parish, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Tensas Parish, Louisiana in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Tensas Parish, Louisiana (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 431) reportedly includes a total of 14,592 slaves. This transcription includes 77 slaveholders who held 70 or more slaves in Tensas Parish, accounting for 9,573 slaves, or 65% of the Parish total. The rest of the slaves in the Parish were held by a total of 263 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ . In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to Parish boundaries.

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Parish, the names of the plantations included with their name in the enumeration, the number of slaves they held in the Parish and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. Following the surname list is an alphabetical list by plantation names. The term "Parish" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were included with this census, which is unusual. In fact, the enumerator not only wrote the plantation names in very large writing, but also did so like a graphic designer making corporate logos. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Louisiana in 1860 there were 371 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,161 farms of 500-999 acres. The census for this Parish included a significant number of plantation names, which are included in this list, with the names of the holders and in a separate alphabetical list of plantations.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not find any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders, except for these four, for whom names were given, but no birthplaces: 100 year old female, "Baptiste", held by Hall on page 268; 120 year old male, "Pompey", held by Servier on page 248; 110 year old male, "Bob Hawkins", held by Douglass on page 247; and 100 year old male, "William Buddley", held by Morris on 242B. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or Parish. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Tensas Parish population included 1,479 whites, 7 "free colored" and 14,592 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had declined 5% to 1,400, while the "colored" population had dropped almost 25% to 11,018. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the Parish was listed as having 4,128 whites, almost a three fold increase, but the 1960 total of 7,665 "Negroes"was only about half of what the colored population had been 100 years before.) Where did all these freed slaves go? Orleans Parish saw an increase in colored population of almost double between 1860 and 1870, growing to over 50,000, so likely that is where many went. No other Louisiana Parish showed such a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Louisiana colored population only increased by 4%, about 13,000. States that saw more significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Tensas Parish, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

BALLANCE & ADAMS, LINWOOD, 113 slaves, page 245B

BASS, A. E., MYRTLE GROVE, 169 slaves, page 241B

BECK & REGISTER, FOREST VALE, 76 slaves, page 270

BECK, T. W. & S. A., OAKWOOD, 75 slaves, page 270

BONDURANT, A. &? K., WAVELAND, 110 slaves, page 243

BONDURANT, John, PLEASANT VUE, 111 slaves, page 244B

BOWIE, Dr.? A. F., FRANKLIN & GLEN ALLEN, 151 slaves, page 247B

BOWMAN, Charles J., JEU LAWN, 93 slaves, page 266

BOWMAN, Elam, WAVERTREE, 200 slaves, page 257B

BOWMAN, John J., GLEN DALE, 83 slaves, page 264

BRANDON, Girard, MONCLORA, 81 slaves, page 261B

BRISCOE, W. J., MOUND PLACE, 169 slaves, page 255B

BUCK, T. J. & Jane M., MORO, 72 slaves, page 241

BUCK, Wm. H., WESTWOOD, 91 slaves, page 250B

BUCKNER, Aylett?, HUBURN?, 124 slaves, page 247

BUELL, K. A., OAKLEY, 70 slaves, page 268

COVINGTON, M.? G. C., AQUASCO, 79 slaves, page 261

DAHLGREEN, Charles D., MARY DALE, 184 slaves, page 264B

DANIELLS, Smith C., LOCUSTWOOD, 164 slaves, page 266B

DANIELS, , S. C., BRIERLAND, 107 slaves, page 256

DORSEY, Sam W., ELK RIDGE, 152 slaves, page 246

DOUGLAS, Jas. A., BLACK RIDGE, 89 slaves, page 246B

DOUGLASS, Geo., SHADY GROVE, 83 slaves, page 247

DUNCAN, Saml. P., L'ARGENT, 131 slaves, page 260B

ELLIOTT, Anna F., BALMORAL, 140 slaves, page 249B

FRISBY, Norman, PALO ALTO & FORLORN HOPE & CALIFORNIA & AUSTRALIA, 150 slaves, page 250B

GALTNEY, Est. James, ERIN, 115 slaves, page 264

GILLESPIE, J. M., PANOLA & HOLLY GROVE, 269 slaves, page 250

GOLDMAN, Mr. E. M. for 6 minors in trust, MELMONT PARK, 75 slaves, page 243

GORDON, Est. J. G., 5 heirs, VERONA, 144 slaves, page 248

HALL, Lucinda, NEWFOUNDLAND, 120 slaves, page 268

HARRISON, David, MAYLAND, 126 slaves, page 256

HARRISON, Isaac F., DELTA, 130 slaves, page 256

HELM, HELENA

HOLLINGSWORTH, J. Y.?, ELK PLACE 100 slaves, page 245B

HUNSICKER, John, CHOLTAW LAKE, 98 slaves, page 253B

HUNT, Est. A., E. G. Wood in trust 4 minors, ARGYLE, 139 slaves, page 269B

JACKSON, D. P., MABRY, 126 slaves, page 255B

JOHNSON, Claudia M., CANTON, 130 slaves, page 246

KIBBE & SHIELDS, PECANO, 105 slaves, page 259

KING, J. & P.?, DURANGO, 122 slaves, page 270B

KING, Robert, MINEHAHA, 101 slaves, page 265B

LLOYD, Edward, 154 slaves, page 246B

MARSCHALL, Geo. M., ARCOLA, 104 slaves, page 261

MASON, Ealbeck, LIMERICK, 89 slaves, page 246B

MCCULLOUGH, J. & H., BOMBAY, 74 slaves, page 266

MCGILL, A. J., YELVERTON, 84 slaves, page 254

MCGILL, J. M., SUNNY SIDE, 110 slaves, page 255

MILLER, E. J. A., WATERPROOF, 90 slaves, page 266B

MONTGOMERY, Hugh, MAY FLOWER & HARD BARGAIN, 128 slaves, page 256B

MORRIS, L. B., RIVER PLACE, 79 slaves, page 242B

MURDOCK, John, DURROSSETT, 126 slaves, page 249B

NEWELL, D. Thos. M., .SHACKLEFORD, 90 slaves, page 252

NUTT, Haller, EVERGREEN PLACE & WINTER QUARTERS, 269 slaves, page 245

OGDEN, John, WYOMING, 89 slaves, page 247B

POINDEXTER, T. B., JUSTINE, 163 slaves, page 256B

PRESTON, Zenas, BURN PLACE, 94 slaves, page 258B

RALSTON, George, AZUCINA, 84 slaves, page 265B

RENFRO?, Tho. B., LEE PLACE, 183 slaves, page 243

ROUTH, Est. S. M.?, 10 minors & widow, ROUTHWOOD, 158 slaves, page 248B

ROUTH, Est. Calvin J. 4 minors, KENNILWORTH & CYPRESS GROVE, 213 slaves, page 248B

ROUTH, John K., HOLLYWOOD & LOCUST LAND, 300 slaves, page 249

ROUTH, John K., BLACKWATER, 161 slaves, page 248

SNODGRASS , Jgeo. R., AMISTAN, 74 slaves, page 257

SNYDER, Hon. Alonzo, VILLACLARA, 102 slaves, page 243B

STACEY, Est. of D. S. in trust for 6 heirs, BOTANY BAY, 72 slaves, page 255

TULLIS, Est. E. J. by John Tullis in trust for 2 heirs, TULLONIA, 76 slaves, page 259B

TULLIS, John, RICHLAND, 143 slaves, page 269B

TURNER, Geo. W., POINT PLEASANT, 204 slaves, page 247

TYSON, John J., CRESCENT, 89 slaves, page 259B

WATSON, A. J., ANTONE & MOUNT AIRY, 229 slaves, page 258

WATSON, Est. Scott in trust for 3 heirs, BUCKHORN & OCEOLA, 222 slaves, page 254B

WATSON, J. M., AVON DALE, 104 slaves, page 255B

WATSON, M. C., LAKEWOOD, 99 slaves, page 255

WATSON, W. W., CROSS KEYS, 99 slaves, page 258

YOUNG, Est. B. F., ST. PETER, 139 slaves, page 257B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in Parish, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in Parish)

ADAMS, 4295, 309, 13, 178, 147, 2

BALLANCE, 17, 2, 0, 2, 2, 0

BASS, 764, 38, 3, 23, 18, 0

BECK, 302, 16, 1, 12, 6, 0

BONDURANT, 35, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BOWIE, 262, 16, 1, 17, 13, 1

BOWMAN, 926, 107, 12, 54, 46, 2

BRANDON, 308, 33, 1, 9, 8, 0

BRISCOE, 286, 19, 2, 8, 7, 1

BUCK, 322, 4, 2, 13, 12, 2

BUCKNER, 794, 57, 7, 24, 19, 3

BUELL, 14, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

COVINGTON, 447, 12, 0, 7, 5, 0

DAHLGREEN, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DANIELLS, 5, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

DANIELS, 853, 67, 7, 38, 27, 4

DORSEY, 1579, 175, 5, 103, 87, 3

DOUGLAS, 906, 121, 3, 74, 69, 0

DOUGLASS, 825, 48, 3, 33, 23, 0

DUNCAN, 1366, 128, 5, 71, 67, 1

ELLIOTT, 807, 22, 4, 11, 10, 4

FRISBY, 155, 4, 0, 4, 2, 0

GALTNEY, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

GILLESPIE, 248, 4, 0, 3, 2, 0

GOLDMAN, 39, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2

GORDON, 1952, 169, 4, 89, 75, 1

HALL, 5875, 531, 43, 306, 255, 13

HARRISON, 3639, 438, 7, 252, 213, 3

HELM, 160, 4, 0, 1, 1, 0

HOLLINGSWORTH, 120, 5, 0

HUNSICKER, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HUNT, 1517, 81, 1, 44, 36, 0

JACKSON, 19100, 1771, 78, 1033, 853, 21

JOHNSON, 33402, 3848, 163, 2306, 1998, 50

KIBBE, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

KING, 4979, 345, 22, 203, 167, 9

LLOYD, 315, 18, 1, 11, 11, 1

MARSCHALL, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MASON, 2858, 198, 10, 98, 85, 2

MCCULLOUGH, 162, 7, 1, 2, 2, 1

MCGILL, 253, 10, 0, 5, 5, 0

MILLER, 6577, 415, 28, 237, 195, 11

MONTGOMERY, 1303, 111, 9, 68, 51, 3

MORRIS, 3112, 302, 9, 184, 160, 5

MURDOCK, 139, 5, 0, 1, 1, 0

NEWELL, 174, 9, 2, 11, 8, 2

NUTT, 60, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1

OGDEN, 90, 8, 0, 7, 6, 0

POINDEXTER, 335, 16, 4, 5, 4, 1

PRESTON, 703, 41, 3

RALSTON, 37, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

REGISTER, 48, 5, 0, 5, 5, 0

RENFRO?, 66, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0

ROUTH, 8, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0

SHIELDS, 471, 43, 4, 20, 17, 3

SNODGRASS , 39, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

SNYDER, 117, 5, 0, 3, 2, 0

STACEY, 19, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

TULLIS, 34, 5, 3, 4, 4, 3

TURNER, 5742, 513, 76, 295, 257, 17

TYSON, 263, 11, 0, 6, 5, 0

WATSON, 3567, 324, 39, 174, 15

YOUNG, 6185, 489, 40, 264, 218, 12

PLANTATION NAME, SURNAME OF ASSOCIATED HOLDER FROM ABOVE SLAVE LIST:

ANTONE, WATSON

AQUASCO, COVINGTON,

ARCOLA, MARSCHALL

ARGYLE, HUNT

AUSTRALIA, FRISBY

AVON DALE, WATSON

AZUCINA, RALSTON,

BALMORAL, ELLIOTT

BLACK RIDGE, DOUGLAS

BLACKWATER, ROUTH

BOMBAY, MCCULLOUGH

BOTANY BAY, STACEY

BRIERLAND, DANIELS

BUCK, WESTWOOD

BUCKHORN, WATSON,

BURN PLACE, PRESTON

CALIFORNIA, FRISBY

CANTON, JOHNSON

CHOLTAW LAKE, HUNSICKER

CRESCENT, TYSON

CROSS KEYS, WATSON,

CYPRESS GROVE, ROUTH

DELTA, HARRISO

DURANGO, KING

DURROSSETT, MURDOCK

ELK RIDGE, DORSEY

ELK PLACE, HOLLINGSWORTH

ERIN, GALTNEY

EVERGREEN PLACE, NUTT

FOREST VALE, BECK & REGISTER

FORLORN HOPE, FRISBY

FRANKLIN, BOWIE

GLEN DALE, BOWMAN

GLEN ALLEN, BOWIE

HARD BARGAIN,MONTGOMERY,

HELENA, HELM

HOLLY GROVE, GILLESPIE

HOLLYWOOD,ROUTH

HUBURN?, BUCKNER

JAMISTAN, SNODGRASS

JEU LAWN, BOWMAN

JUSTINE, POINDEXTER

KENNILWORTH, ROUTH

L'ARGENT, DUNCAN,

LEE PLACE, RENFRO?

LIMERICK, MASON

LINWOOD, BALLANCE & ADAMS

LOCUST LAND, ROUTH

LOCUSTWOOD, DANIELLS

MABRY, JACKSON

MARY DALE, DAHLGREEN

MAY FLOWER, MONTGOMERY,

MAYLAND, HARRISON

MELMONT PARK, GOLDMAN

MINEHAHA, KING

MONCLORA, BRANDON

MORO, BUCK

MOUND PLACE, BRISCOE

MOUNT AIRY, WATSON

MYRTLE GROVE, BASS

NEWELL, SHACKLEFORD

NEWFOUNDLAND, HALL

OAKLEY, BUELL

OAKWOOD, BECK

OCEOLA, WATSON,

PALO ALTO, FRISBY

PANOLA, GILLESPIE

PECANO, KIBBE & SHIELDS

PLEASANT VUE, BONDURANT

POINT PLEASANT, TURNER

RICHLAND, TULLIS

RIVER PLACE, MORRIS

ROUTHWOOD, ROUTH

SHADY GROVE, DOUGLASS

ST. PETER,YOUNG

SUNNY SIDE, MCGILL

TULLONIA, TULLIS,

VERONA, GORDON

VILLACLARA, SNYDER

WATERPROOF, MILLER

WATSON, LAKEWOOD

WAVELAND, BONDURANT

WAVERTREE, BOWMAN

WINTER QUARTERS, NUTT

WYOMING, OGDEN

YELVERTON, MCGILL

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