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CARROLL PARISH, LOUISIANA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, September 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Carroll Parish, Louisiana, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Carroll Parish, Louisiana census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Carroll Parish, Louisiana census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the Parish. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral Parish, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Carroll Parish, Louisiana in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Carroll Parish, Louisiana (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 427) reportedly includes a total of 13,908 slaves, ranking it the third highest Parish total in Louisiana. This transcription includes the 102 slaveholders who held 40 or more slaves in Carroll Parish, accounting for 10,027 slaves, or 72% of the Parish total. The rest of the slaves in the Parish were held by a total of 496 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ . In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to Parish boundaries.

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Parish, the number of slaves they held in the Ward where the slaves were enumerated and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. The enumerator of this census made a note as part of the listing of some holder names indicating that the a particular holder also appeared elsewhere in the Parish and/or in another Parish and/or State as a slaveholder, and those places are included in this transcription in parentheses after the name of the particular holder. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "Parish" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not usually shown on the census, but any shown are included in this transcription. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Louisiana in 1860 there were 371 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,161 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this Parish with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not find any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders, except for 100 year old female Lucy held by Richards on page 319B and 100 year old male Pompey held by Davidson on page 327B. The occupations of the male craftsmen slaves are listed on this census, including one who was identified as an engineer and carpenter. The enumerator also noted as "large and comfortable" the slave houses of holders Morgan on page 315, Tebbets on page 317B and Ford on page 337. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or Parish. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Carroll Parish population included 4,124 whites, 20 "free colored" and 13,908 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had dropped 42% to 2,380, and the "colored" population had dropped 45% to 7,718. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the Parish was listed as having 16,600 whites, a four fold increase, but the 1960 total of 11,978 "Negroes"was actually 14% less than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) Where did all these freed slaves go? Orleans Parish saw an increase in colored population of almost double between 1860 and 1870, growing to over 50,000, so likely that is where many went. No other Louisiana Parish showed such a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Louisiana colored population only increased by 4%, about 13,000. States that saw more significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Carroll Parish, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ALLEN, William L., 44 slaves, Ward 2, page 323B

ALLEN, William M., (also holds in MS), 133 slaves, Ward 2, page 324

ANDERSON, Amy and 1 minor, Nat. Tut., 110 slaves, Ward 3, page 343B

BAGLY, Dr. A., 64 slaves, Ward 4, page 367

BALFOUR, Est. of Wm., William E. Sequist, 4 minors, (also holds in MS), 103 slaves, Ward 3, page 334B

BALLARD (see Boyd & Ballard)

BASS, Abraham, 130 slaves, Ward 2, page 322

BASS, James A., 65 slaves, Ward 2, page 323

BEARD, Isum B., 69 slaves, Ward 1, page 305

BENJAMIN, Est. of Wm. B., 3 minors, 92 slaves, Ward 2, page 320

BENTON, Warren M., 91 slaves, Ward 2, page 321B

BERRY (see also Troutman & Berry)

BERRY, James M., (also holds in Troutman and Berry), 84 slaves, Ward 3, page 338B

BLACKBURN, Dr. David F., 115 slaves, Ward 3, page 336B

BLACKBURNE, Dr. H. G., (also holds elsewhere in Parish and in MS), 82 slaves, Ward 1, page 299

BLACKMAN, Dr. H. G., All Right Plantation, 85 slaves, Ward 2, page 333

BOND, Dr. Samuel, 114 slaves, Ward 3, page 339

BOYD & BALLARD, (also hold elsewhere in LA, AR and MS), 110 slaves, Ward 1, page 299B

CARSON, James G., 170 slaves, Ward 1, page 310B

CATLIN, John D., 41 slaves, Ward 1, page 297

CHAMBLISS (see also Lane & Chambliss)

CHAMBLISS, John S., Island No. 2, (also holds in MS), 144 slaves, Ward 2 & 3, page 333B

CHAMBLISS, Saml. L., 116 slaves, Ward 4, page 366

CLOMAN, Wiklliam, 78 slaves, Ward 3, page 349



COLEMAN, (see Stowers and Coleman)

CURRIE, William C., 70 slaves, Ward 1, page 300

DAVID, F. A. W., 92 slaves, Ward 1, page 308

DAVIDSON, William, (also holds in SC), 103 slaves, Ward 2, page 327B

DAVIS, Julia, Nat. Tut. & 2 minors, 44 slaves, Ward 4, page 364B

DREW, James C., 45 slaves, Ward 4, page 354B

EPPES, John W., 72 slaves, Ward 4, page 355B

EVANS, Est. of Thomas, 2 owners, 45 slaves, Ward 1, page 368b (ends on page 297)

FORD, Robert T., (also holds in AR and KY), 148 slaves, Ward 3, page 337

GAILLARD, Thomas B., (also holds in MS), 50 slaves, Ward 2, page 328

GALLAWAY, James, 43 slaves, Ward 1, page 308

GILMORE (see Martin & Gilmore)

GOFFE, Dr. Nathan G., 119 slaves, Ward 3, page 349B

GOODRICH, Henry, 53 slaves, Ward 1, page 308B

GOZA, Aaron, (also holds in KY), 260 slaves, Ward 3, page 347B

HARDEMAN, William D., and DEFRANCE, C. A., (also holds elsewhere in Parish), 60 slaves, Ward 4, page 358B

HARGROVE, Reuben M., in trust for 4 minors (also Tut. For Veales? In Jackson Parish), 41 slaves, Ward 6, page 379

HARRIS, William H., 166 slaves, Ward 1, page 302

HENDERSON, William, 148 slaves, Ward 1, page 303

HOLMES, Mrs. Mary E., 51 slaves, Ward 5, page 369B

HOOD, Govy, Black Bayou Place, (also holds in Parish and KY), 62 slaves, Ward 3, page 336

HOOD, Govy, (also holds in KY and in this Parish), 117 slaves, Ward 2, page 329B

INGRAM, Nicholas D., 41 slaves, Ward 4 & 1, page 367B

KELLUM, Est. of Oliver H., 1 owner, 104 slaves, Ward 1, page 314

KERR, James D., 57 slaves, Ward 3, page 345

KEY, Mrs. Helen C., 47 slaves, Ward 3, page 342B

LANE & CHAMBLISS, (also holds elsewhere in Parish), 80 slaves, Ward 5, page 371B

LYNCH, John of Tenn, owner, Philip Grier, employer, 101 slaves, Ward 4, page 360B

MANNING, Ira L., 67 slaves, Ward 4, page 364B

MARTIN & GILMORE, 94 slaves, Ward 5, page 370

MAY, Richard H., 63 slaves, Ward 3, page 345B

MORGAN, Est. of Jonathan, 2 owners, 51 slaves, Ward 1, page 304B

MORGAN, Oliver T., "Adams", in trust for 4 minors, 231 slaves, Ward 1, page 309

MORGAN, Oliver T., Westland Plantation, 131 slaves, Ward 2, page 316

MORGAN, Oliver J., Wilton Plantation, 408 slaves, Ward 1, page 311B (also includes Albion Plantation)

MORGAN, Oliver J. & Oliver T., "Morgana", (also hold elsewhere in Parish), 136 slaves, Ward 2, page 315

MOTLEY, Creed T., 55 slaves, Ward 6, page 375B

MULLIN, Lucinda M., (also holds in AR and LA), 42 slaves, Ward 3, page 335A

NEWMAN, George R., 58 slaves, Ward 1, page 304

OWEN, Sharpley, 121 slaves, Ward 3, page 346B

RAILEY, James, (also holds elsewhere in MS), 324 slaves, Ward 1, page 305B (includes Raleigh Plantation}

RICHARDS, Alex. K., 104 slaves, Ward 2, page 319B

ROSS, Meshack, 101 slaves, Ward 3, page 338

SANDERSON (see Sparrow & Sanderson)

SAVAGE, Elisabeth, 73 slaves, Ward 1, page 307B

SCOTT, Est. of Indiana, 2 minors, 68 slaves, Ward 3, page 351

SELLERS, Mathew B., & in trust for 3 minors, 107 slaves, Ward 2, page 330

SMITH, Ephram H., H. B. Bl;ackburne "Ex", 2 minors, 119 slaves, Ward 2, page 328B

SPARROW & SANDERSON, (also hold "elsewhere"), 82 slaves, Ward 2, page 331

SPARROW, Edward, Arlington Place, 1 (also holds in LA), 39 slaves, Ward 2, page 331B

SPARROW [name unwritten presumed same as preceding], Edward, Elton Plantation, 97 slaves, Ward 2, page 332B

SPENCER, Horatio N., (also holds in MS), 101 slaves, Ward 3, page 346

STEWART, Robert, (also holds in MS), 59 slaves, Ward 3, page 343

STONE, Thomas O. and 1 other, 54 slaves, Ward 2, page 325

STONEMAN, Mrs. Amanda, (also holds in MS), 77 slaves, Ward 1, page 301

STOWERS, Catherine E. (also holds in MS), Coleman, E. L., 57 slaves, Ward 3, page 344

STOWERS, Lewis E., 40 slaves, Ward 3, page 345

STOWERS, Mary, 51 slaves, Ward 3, page 344B

STOWERS, Mrs. Josephene, Nat. Tut. 3 minors, 71 slaves, Ward 3, page 342B

SUTTON, William, 102 slaves, Ward 3, page 340

TAYLOR, Felix H. G., 55 slaves, Ward 4, page 358

TEBBETS, Hiram B., 121 slaves, Ward 2, page 320B

TEBBETS, Horace B., Holly Brook Plantation, 54 slaves, Ward 2, page 319

TEBBETS, Horace B., Bodeane Plantation, 45 slaves, Ward 2, page 319

TEBBETS, Horace B., Admr. For minors, Mounds Plantation, 124 slaves, Ward 2, page 317

TEBBETS [name unwritten presumed same as preceding], Slave Teke Place, 184 slaves, Ward 2, page 317B

TEMPLETON, Samuel, 100 slaves, Ward 4, page 356B

TROTTER, Nathan & Co., (Co. also holds in MS), 91 slaves, Ward 3, page 340B

TROUTMAN, Geo. W., and BERRY, J. M., (also holds elsewhere in Parish), 57 slaves, Ward 4, page 362

TROUTMAN, Hiram? B. and L. M., (also holds in GA), 48 slaves, Ward 4, page 360

TROUTMAN, John T. and Hiram A., Long Shot Plantation, (also hold in GA), 51 slaves, Ward 4, page 359B

VALENTINE, Mark, 187 slaves, Ward 1, page 297B

WADDELL, Dr. Andrew M., 89 slaves, Ward 4, page 365B

WALWORTH, John P., 92 slaves, Ward 3, page 335

WHEATLEY, Est of S., 56 slaves, Ward 5, page 372B

WILLIAMS, Robert W., Bunches Bend /Antioch, (also holds in FL), 429 slaves, Ward 3, page 352 (ends 369 and 369B)

WILLSON, George G., Extr. Of Chambliss Plantation, 89 slaves, Ward 2, page 325B

WILLSON, George G. and wife, 73 slaves, Ward 4, page 357B

WILSON, George G., home place, (also holds at Monticello, this Parish) 41 slaves, Ward 2, page 326

WILSON, James H., Wood Yard Plantation, 169 slaves, Ward 3, page 341

WITKOUSKIE, Julius & Mary A., 47 slaves, Ward 3, page 351B

WOODFOLK, William W., (also holds in AR and TN), 100 slaves, Ward 3, page 350B

WYLY, James W., 59 slaves, Ward 4, page 361B

WYNN, Walter O., Back Place, Wynn Forest, 1 (also holds elsewhere in LA), 24 slaves, Ward 1, page 301B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in Parish, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in Parish)

ALLEN, 6198, 483, 10, 269, 227, 2

ANDERSON, 8173, 653, 17, 359, 296, 7

BAGLY, 26, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0

BALFOUR, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BALLARD, 633, 26, 0, 12, 9, 0

BASS, 764, 38, 0, 23, 18, 0

BEARD, 421, 21, 2, 14, 13, 0

BENJAMIN, 416, 112, 0, 87, 85, 0

BENTON, 569, 51, 2, 26, 22, 1

BERRY, 1958, 105, 2, 44, 37, 0

BLACKBURN, 418, 443, 4, 21, 19, 2

BLACKBURNE, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BLACKMAN, 325, 51, 1, 29, 25, 1

BOND, 825, 6, 1, 6, 4, 0

BOYD, 1905, 79, 1, 41, 33, 0

CARSON, 617, 26, 4, 14, 10, 1

CATLIN, 51, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0

CHAMBLISS, 59, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0

CLOMAN, 3, 2, 0, 1, 1, 0

COLEMAN, 4329, 363, 7, 189, 168, 3

CURRIE, 145, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DAVID, 422, 70, 0, 51, 49, 0

DAVIDSON, 762, 42, 1, 25, 19, 0

DAVIS, 13725, 1216, 37, 707, 598, 16

DEFRANCE, 3, 2, 0, 1, 1, 0

DREW, 240, 22, 1, 12, 12, 0

EPPES, 125, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

EVANS, 3275, 154, 5, 97, 71, 30

FORD, 2562, 170, 4, 104, 85, 1

GAILLARD, 125, 5, 0, 3, 3, 0

GALLAWAY, 96, 7, 0, 1, 0, 0

GILMORE, 520, 56, 2, 23, 21, 0

GOFFE, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

GOODRICH, 116, 12, 0, 4, 4, 0

GOZA, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HARDEMAN, 91, 4, 0, 4, 3, 0

HARGROVE , 272, 6, 0, 3, 2, 0

HARRIS, 11315, 750, 35, 375, 324, 13

HENDERSON, 3706, 426, 23, 261, 224, 11,

HOLMES, 2804, 219, 4, 115, 98, 1

HOOD, 561, 17, 3, 12, 7, 2

INGRAM, 653, 14, 3, 11, 7, 1

KELLUM, 53, 4, 0, 3, 1, 0

KERR, 195, 7, 2, 3, 3, 2

KEY, 532, 27, 1, 19, 17, 1

LANE, 1402, 66, 1, 34, 23, 0

LYNCH, 464, 35, 1, 12, 10, 0

MANNING, 448, 31, 5, 11, 9, 1

MARTIN, 5318, 492, 5, 346, 305, 2

MAY, 1116, 56, 0, 36, 30, 0

MORGAN, 2507, 220, 3, 132, 115, 2

MOTLEY, 246, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0

MULLIN, 39, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0

NEWMAN, 649, 48, 4, 21, 15, 0

OWEN, 851, 36, 3, 17, 14, 1

RAILEY, 21, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

RICHARDS, 892, 78, 1, 45, 44, 0

ROSS, 3113, 264, 10, 150, 124, 4

SANDERSON, 132, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0

SAVAGE, 484, 13, 0, 6, 5, 0

SCOTT, 8407, 821, 11, 526, 445, 1

SELLERS, 225, 14, 3, 13, 8, 0

SMITH, 29087, 2573, 72, 1500, 1274, 18

SPARROW, 137, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0

SPENCER, 1560, 96, 1

STEWART, 3648, 342, 22, 201, 177, 2

STONE, 1070, 18, 2, 12, 6, 0

STONEMAN, 9, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

STOWERS, 60, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

SUTTON, 713, 24, 0, 13, 10, 0

TAYLOR, 11696, 996, 34, 538, 463, 10

TEBBETS, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

TEMPLETON, 66, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0

TROTTER, 200, 8, 1, 5, 1, 0

TROUTMAN, 66, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

VALENTINE, 543, 55, 1, 43. 39, 0

WADDELL, 138, 12, 0, 5, 5, 0

WALWORTH, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

WHEATLEY, 79, 3, 0, 1, 1, 0

WILLIAMS, 28865, 3171, 54, 1987, 1686, 18

WILLSON, 542, 30, 1, 13, 7, 0

WILSON, 10819, 1016, 24, 609, 518, 7

WITKOUSKIE, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

WOODFOLK, 49, 7, 0, 2, 2, 0

WYLY, 52, 2, 1, 1, 0, 0

WYNN, 300, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0

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