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TWIGGS COUNTY, GEORGIA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, February, 2002

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Twiggs County, Georgia, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Twiggs County, Georgia census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Twiggs County, Georgia census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Twiggs County, Georgia in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Twiggs County, Georgia (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 152) reportedly includes a total of 5,318 slaves. This transcription includes 68 slaveholders who held 23 or more slaves in Twiggs County, accounting for 3,719 slaves, or 70% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 229 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. In this Twiggs County census it is especially difficult to distinguish between the capital letters "L" and "S". Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County, the local district where they were counted and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Georgia in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, and, though not specifically searching for such slaves, the transcriber noticed none in this County for the holders transcribed, except for 100 year old female Judy held by James Bryan on page 266C. The Twiggs enumerator also provided the names of the following blind slaves: 80 year old female Ginny held by Henry Bunn on page 244B; 50 year old female Ginny held by the Tarver estate on page 264; 50 year old female Harriet held by Robt. R. Slappy(?) On page 266; male slave Joe Tom (age?) Held by Gustavas M. McCrea on page 266B; and 9 year old female Margaret held by John B. McCoy on page 269. The enumerator also named one 75 year old female slave Charlotte, held by Margaret C. Chapman on page 252, without indication of any handicap. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Twiggs County population included 2,930 whites, 72 "free colored" and 5,318 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population stayed about the same at 2,913, while the "colored" population increased about 4% to 5,632. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 3,164 whites, about 8% more than in 1860, while the 1960 total of 4,771 "Negroes"was about 11% less than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries.

Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in Twiggs County? Chatham County saw an increase in colored population of almost two thirds between 1860 and 1870, so obviously that is where many freed slaves went. Other Georgia Counties showing significant increases include Fulton, Houston and Richmond. Between 1860 and 1870, the Georgia colored population increased by 80,000, to 545,000, a 17% increase. Where did freed Georgia slaves go if they did not stay in Georgia? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Twiggs County, included the following: Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ANDREWS, Abisha, 28 slaves, District 323, page 258B

BARCLAY, John A., 51 slaves, District 372, page 242B

BECKCOM, Allen B., 82 slaves, District 372, page 242

BECKCOM, William H., 35 slaves, District 372, page 240D

BRYAN, Est. Sidney, James M. Ward manager for, 74 slaves, District 376, page 266D

BRYAN, James, 46 slaves, District 376, page 266C

BRYAN, Mary, 65 slaves, District 325, page 251

BRYANT, William, A. G. Bridge employer, 48 slaves, District 325, page 250B

BUNN, Henry, 114 slaves, District 324, page 244

BUNN, Hugh L., 26 slaves, District 372, page 241

BURNS, James C., 117 slaves, District 326, page 262C

CHAPMAN, John, 56 slaves, District 325, page 252

CHAPMAN, Margaret C., 32 slaves, District 325, page 252

CHAPPELL, Thomas S., 26 slaves, District 355, page 261

COMBS, James R., 59 slaves, District 354, page 269

CROCKER, Mary E., James S. Glover employer, 30 slaves, District 425, page 240

DENSON, John H., 25 slaves, District 323, page 258

DURHAM, Hardy, 108 slaves, District 324, page 247

EPPS, John C., 58 slaves, District 356, page 257C

FAULK, Charles R., 42 slaves, District 372, page 241B

FAULK, George W., 52 slaves, District 324, page 244B

FAULK, Nancy, 24 slaves, District 324, page 244B

FAULK, William, Wright Neil employer, 91 slaves, District 425, page 238B

FITZPATRICK, John, 157 slaves, District 356, page 257

GALLIMORE, John, 53 slaves, District 354, page 268

GALLIMORE, Lucy, 37 slaves, District 354, page 268

GLOVER, James S., 27 slaves, District 425, page 240

GLOVER, John, 33 slaves, District 325, page 249

GLOVER, Thomas, 76 slaves, District 324, page 245

GRAGG, Est. S. P., Silmon J. Joyner for, 39 slaves, District 356, page 255

HARDEN, L. L., 26 slaves, District 323, page 258B

HERRING, Elizabeth, 30 slaves, District 326, page 262B

HORNE?, William D., 32 slaves, District 325, page 253B

HUGHES, Daniel G., 41 slaves, District 354, page 269B

HUGHES, Haywood, 91 slaves, District 325, page 251

JONES, Elias, 49 slaves, District 325, page 253B

JONES, Nancy, 26 slaves, District 356, page 255

JONES, Thomas S.?, 46 slaves, District 425, page 239

LAMB, Meidy?, 30 slaves, District 354, page 269

MCALLEN, Archd., 87 slaves, District 325, page 253

MCCREA, Gustavas M., 32 slaves, District 376, page 266B

METHVIN?, William, 53 slaves, District 325, page 254

MORE, Thomas, 25 slaves, District 356, page 255

MYRICK, S. P., Thomas Hughes for, 75 slaves, District 356, page 255B

NELSON, John A., 57 slaves, District 355, page 260B

PACE, Thomas B., 35 slaves, District 372, page 240C

PAUL, Robert, 49 slaves, District 372, page 241

PHILIPS, R., John S. Williams man. For, 40 slaves, District 323, page 259B

RADFORD, Mary, 26 slaves, District 325, page 252B

RAY, Benj., 25 slaves, District 323, page 259

READ, Wm. H. Sr., 29 slaves, District 323, page 258

RICHARDSON, Stephen L.?, 44 slaves, District 324, page 245

SHARP, Charice?, 30 slaves, District 355, page 260

SHARP, John D., 24 slaves, District 323, page 258B

SHINE, Daniel W., 112 slaves, District 324, page 245B

SLAPPY, M. E.?, 31 slaves, District 376, page 266C

SLAPPY?, Robt. R., 104 slaves, District 376, page 266

SOLOMON, Hardy, 25 slaves, District 323, page 258

SOLOMON, William L., 32 slaves, District 425, page 238

TARVER, H. H., Wm. H. Tarver extr of, 300 slaves, District 376, page 264

THORPE, Jeremiah A., 34 slaves, District 355, page 260B

WALL, James G., 42 slaves, District 355, page 260

WARD, John, 39 slaves, District 354, page 268B

WARE, James M., 53 slaves, District 326, page 262

WIMBERLY, Carolina, 23 slaves, District 325, page 250

WIMBERLY, Henry S., 86 slaves, District 324, page 247B

WIMBERLY, Polly, 32 slaves, District 325, page 249

WIMBERLY, Robt. R., 94 slaves, District 325, page 249B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ANDREWS, 1160, 247, 8, 259, 214, 8

BARCLAY, 78, 9, 1, 10, 6, 1

BECKCOM, 5, 5, 0, 5, 5, 0

BRYAN, 1098, 158, 2, 176, 129, 2

BRYANT, 2129, 437, 13, 447, 359, 12

BUNN, 156, 30, 0, 21, 19, 0

BURNS, 1023, 100, 2, 117, 85, 2

CHAPMAN, 1251, 143, 7, 144, 114, 7



CHAPPELL, 243, 28, 11, 41, 24, 10

COMBS, 269, 19, 0, 27, 19, 0

CROCKER, 114, 20, 3, 17, 17, 3

DENSON, 125, 46, 9, 50, 45, 9

DURHAM, 338, 96, 11, 84, 80, 10

EPPS, 568, 49, 9, 52, 42, 9

FAULK, 161, 26, 12, 27, 24, 11

FITZPATRICK, 212, 39, 14, 49, 36, 14

GALLIMORE, 18, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

GLOVER, 1147, 194, 11, 191, 153, 9

GRAGG, 12, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

HARDEN, 577, 138, 0, 148, 124, 0

HERRING, 327, 22, 0, 17, 16, 0

HORNE?, 164, 42, 2, 32, 29, 2

HUGHES, 1641, 112, 3, 121, 87, 3

JONES, 27193, 2842, 27, 3335, 2331, 25

LAMB, 285, 30, 1, 33, 24, 1

MCALLEN, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MCCREA, 102, 5, 0, 8, 5, 0

METHVIN?, 4, 4, 0, 4, 4, 0

MORE, 402, 37, 0, 48, 34, 0

MYRICK, 202, 82, 1, 77, 66, 1

NELSON, 3371, 266, 15, 316, 202, 14

PACE, 280, 86, 1, 97, 71, 1

PAUL, 291, 35, 4, 36, 31, 4

PHILIPS, 748, 103, 2, 117, 86, 2

RADFORD, 152, 16, 0, 15, 11, 0

RAY, 1295, 151, 4, 174, 128, 4

READ, 779, 52, 5, 74, 45, 5

RICHARDSON, 3741, 253, 0, 294, 192, 0

SHARP, 759, 75, 0, 98, 66, 0

SHINE, 49, 6, 2, 7, 6, 2

SLAPPY, 56, 48, 10, 36, 36, 10

SOLOMON, 365, 113, 13, 122, 97, 12

TARVER, 171, 65, 5, 78, 57, 4

THORPE, 31, 7, 0, 7, 7, 0

WALL, 535, 50, 7, 56, 46, 7

WARD, 2525, 281, 3, 325, 241, 3

WARE, 998, 181, 1, 231, 152, 1

WIMBERLY, 237, 133, 31, 136, 113, 28

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