Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   

PUTNAM COUNTY, GEORGIA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, March 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Putnam County, Georgia, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Putnam County, Georgia census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

 

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Putnam County, Georgia census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

 

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Putnam County, Georgia in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

 

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

 

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Putnam County, Georgia (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 150) reportedly includes a total of 7,138 slaves. This transcription includes 125 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Putnam County, accounting for 5,048 slaves, or about 71% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 277 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County, the local district where they were counted and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a “B” being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term “County” is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Georgia in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, and the transcriber found none listed in this County. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Putnam County population included 2,956 whites, 31 “free colored” and 7,138 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had decreased about 2% to 3,016, while the “colored” population had increased about 4% to7,445. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 3,584 whites, an increase of about 21% over 1860, but the 1960 total of 4,214 “Negroes”was about 41% less than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries. Chatham County saw an increase in colored population of almost two thirds between 1860 and 1870, so obviously that is where many freed slaves went. Other Georgia Counties showing significant increases include Fulton, Houston and Richmond. Between 1860 and 1870, the Georgia colored population increased by 80,000, to 545,000, a 17% increase. Where did freed Georgia slaves go if they did not stay in Georgia? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Putnam County, included the following: Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST (on some entries it was not entirely clear who was the agent and who was the owner):

 

ADAMS, B. W., 28 slaves, [no district], page 173B

ADAMS, B. B. & J. M., H. M. Tripp Guard., 35 slaves, [no district], page 176

ADAMS, D. R., 63 slaves, 374 Dist., page 221

ADAMS, J. F., 38 slaves, 374 Dist., page 219B

ADAMS, Jefferson, 40 slaves, 374 Dist., page 217

ANDREWS, D. R., 33 slaves, 374 Dist., page 217B

BAGLEY, Jas. D., 20 slaves 312 Dist., page 186B

BALDWIN, H. T., 33 slaves, 309 Dist., page 208

BASEMAN, Wm., 20 slaves 312 Dist., page 186B

BEALL, Allen A., 50 slaves, 308 Dist., page 211B

BOSWELL, Jas., 43V07B

BOWDOIN, Daniel, 20 slaves 314? Dist., page 191

BREWINGTON, Wm. J., 36 slaves 369 Dist., page 195B

BULLARD, J. M., 28 slaves, 309 Dist., page 206

BURK?, Avington, 40 slaves 367 Dist., page 201

CALLOWAY, J. W., Admr E. Calloway, 41 slaves, 375 Dist., page 203

CARTER, Wm. B., 45 slaves, [no district], page 178

CLARK, B. W., 32 slaves 314? Dist., page 189

COGBURN, J. A., 47 slaves, 306 Dist., page 209

COWLES, T. F., 25 slaves, [no district], page 173B

COX, Cary, 40 slaves 369 Dist., page 197B

COX, Joseph B., 26 slaves 310 Dist., page 191B

CRIDDEL, C. S., 30 slaves, 309 Dist., page 205

DAVIS, T. J., 34 slaves, 306 Dist., page 209B

DEJARNETT?, R. R., 23 slaves, 374 Dist., page 219

DENHAM, J. C., 58 slaves, 306 Dist., page 210

DENNIS, Michael, 107 slaves, 374 Dist., page 221

DENNIS, William, 100 slaves, 374 Dist., page 222

EAKIN, Wm., 30 slaves, 308 Dist., page 213

EDMUNDSON, Jacob, 63 slaves 311 Dist., page 185

FARLEY, J. W., 31 slaves, 374 Dist., page 219

FARRAR, Wm. P., 42 slaves 369 Dist., page 195B

FARRAR, Wm. G., 21 slaves 369 Dist., page 196B

GANAN, William, 36 slaves 311 Dist., page 185

GANTT, John, 28 slaves 369 Dist., page 196B

GARRARD, J. M., 21 slaves, 374 Dist., page 218B

GATEWOOD, W. A., 46 slaves, 389 Dist., page 210B

GORLEY, Wm. A., 50 slaves 311 Dist., page 183B

GREGORY, J. W., 23 slaves, 308 Dist., page 214B

GRIGGS, Wesley, 60 slaves 310 Dist., page 194

HARPER, , Jas., Agt. M. Presley, 20 slaves, 309 Dist., page 207

HARRISON, A. B., 39 slaves, 374 Dist., page 216B

HARWELL, J. F., 30 slaves 367 Dist., page 202

HAWKINS, J. A., 23 slaves 390 Dist., page 200B

HEAD, Sarah, 35 slaves 390 Dist., page 200

HEARN, F. S., 25 slaves 367 Dist., page 201B

HEARN, F. S., 64 slaves 367 Dist., page 202B

HEARN, Wm., 49 slaves 367 Dist., page 201

HEARN, Wm. T., 20 slaves, 374 Dist., page 220

HODSON?, John W., 37 slaves 311 Dist., page 184

HOWARD, A. P., 25 slaves 390 Dist., page 199B

HUDSON, M., B. W. Adams Exr of, 23 slaves, [no district], page 173B

INGRAM, Benj., 57 slaves, 309 Dist., page 206

INGRAM, S.? H., 60 slaves 312 Dist., page 187

JENKINS, F. S., 20 slaves, 307 Dist., page 215B

JOHNSON, Susan, 31 slaves, 307 Dist., page 216

KEY, John P., 44 slaves 314? Dist., page 189

KILPATRIC, H., 27 slaves, [no district], page 174

KILPATRICK, Thos., E. E. Terrell admr of, 21 slaves, 389 Dist., page 211

KIMBROUGH, W. G., 26 slaves, 306 Dist., page 209B

LAWRENCE, Allen, 45 slaves 314? Dist., page 188B

LAWRENCE, Sarah, 29 slaves 314? Dist., page 190

LINCH, J. N., 33 slaves 390 Dist., page 200B

LINCH, Lewis, 20 slaves 310 Dist., page 192

LITTLE, Kinchean, 91 slaves, 308 Dist., page 214B

MADDON, John C., 31 slaves 310 Dist., page 192

MARSHALL, Stephen B., 80 slaves, [no district], page 174B

MIRE?, Green, T. W. S. Lewis agt for, 49 slaves, 308 Dist., page 214

MITCHEL, W. H., J. J. Jay agt., 37 slaves 312 Dist., page 186

MORTON, Henry, 60V07B

MOSELY, A. S., 26 slaves, [no district], page 175

MOSELY, A. O.?, 30 slaves, [no district], page 178

MOSELY, J. B., 24 slaves 367 Dist., page 202

MOSELY, Joseph A., 34 slaves, [no district], page 176B

MYRICK, David, 81 slaves, [no district], page 177

MYRICK, Wm. J., 31 slaves 312 Dist., page 187B

NAPIER, S., Oscar A. Garner agt., 134 slaves 312 Dist., page 187B

NICHOLSON, Jas., 24 slaves, [no district], page 173

ODOM, B. B., 64 slaves 369 Dist., page 196

ORICK, Major, 26 slaves 314? Dist., page 191

PARHAM, Robert, 33 slaves 312 Dist., page 186

PASCHAL, William, 79 slaves, [no district], page 181B

PEARSON, D. B., 23 slaves 367 Dist., page 202

PEARSON, Samueal, 92 slaves, [no district], page 182B

PERRYMAN, E., 70 slaves, 309 Dist., page 205

PHILIPS, A. C., 20 slaves, 374 Dist., page 219

POUNDS, J. B., 58 slaves 369 Dist., page 197

PRESLEY, J. M., 22, E., A. S. Reid Ext., 30 slaves, 309 Dist., page 207

RAINEY, W. P., 29 slaves 390 Dist., page 200

REID, Alex S., 118 slaves, [no district], page 180

REID, Alexander, 47 slaves, [no district], page 174

REID, Andrew, 102 slaves, [no district], page 179

REID, Edmund, 78 slaves, [no district], page 181

REID, James L., 78 slaves, [no district], page 178B

REID, John A., 46 slaves 369 Dist., page 194B

REID, W. D., E., A. S. Reid Ext., 30 slaves, 309 Dist., page 206B

RESPASS, Thos., 34 slaves 311 Dist., page 184

ROPER, David, 62 slaves, [no district], page 181B

SADDLER, C. J., Lewis Linch guardian, 23 slaves 310 Dist., page 193

SAMPLES, N. H., 25 slaves 310 Dist., page 194

SCOTT, J. H., 26 slaves, 309 Dist., page 207

SINGLETON, David, 38 slaves 310 Dist., page 193B

SLAUGHTER, Bradley, 34 slaves, 389 Dist., page 211B

SPARKS, Robt., 28 slaves 390 Dist., page 199B

SPARKS, W. H., 20 slaves 390 Dist., page 199

SPIVEY, Caleb, 73 slaves, 308 Dist., page 213

STEWART, L. J., 21 slaves 314? Dist., page 189B

TERRELL , 33 slaves, 309 Dist., page 206B

TERRELL, E. Z., 54 slaves, 389 Dist., page 210B

TRIPP, Henry M., 50 slaves, [no district], page 176

TURNER, J. A., 23 slaves, 374 Dist., page 217B

VAUGHN, Ivy, Agt. Roan Ward, 28 slaves, 374 Dist., page 219B

VINCENT, Wm., 23 slaves 369 Dist., page 195

WALKER, G. W., 23 slaves 314? Dist., page 188B

WALLER, Isaac R., 37 slaves 311 Dist., page 185B

WALTON, J. R., 30 slaves, 309 Dist., page 208B

WARD, Uriah, 28 slaves 310 Dist., page 193

WELCH, John, 20 slaves, 307 Dist., page 215B

WHITFIELD, H., 29 slaves,,375 Dist., page 203

WINCHEL, A., 23 slaves, 309 Dist., page 208B

WRIGHT, Jas., 22 slaves 390 Dist., page 199

WYNN, R. J., 27 slaves, 308 Dist., page 212B

YOUNG, Robert, 20 slaves 314? Dist., page 191

YOUNG, Wm. T., 20 slaves, [no district], page 176

ZACHERY, A. R., J. Boswell Agt. For, 28 slaves, 309 Dist., page 208

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

ADAMS, 4295, 528, 20, 616, 434, 18

ANDREWS, 1160, 247, 6, 259, 214, 3

BAGLEY, 147, 10, 1, 12, 9, 1

BALDWIN, 634, 98, 2, 114, 80, 0

BASEMAN, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BEALL, 189, 99, 2, 96, 88, 1

BOSWELL, 273, 32, 17, 45, 30, 17

BOWDOIN, 13, 8, 7, 8, 8, 7

BREWINGTON, 53, 4, 4, 3, 3, 3

BULLARD, 146, 33, 1, 30, 26, 0

BURK?, 306, 31, 0, 37, 27, 0

CALLOWAY, 227, 35, 0, 47, 32, 0

CARTER, 7164, 598, 5, 653, 479, 4

CLARK, 5807, 647, 20, 655, 487, 19

COGBURN, 17, 5, 5, 7, 5, 5

COWLES, 58, 14, 7, 15, 13, 7

COX, 2288, 260, 13, 303, 211, 12

CRIDDEL, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DAVIS, 13725, 1329, 19, 1532, 1081, 15

DEJARNETTE?, 51, 4, 1, 6, 4, 1

DENHAM, 38, 10, 2, 12, 9, 1

DENNIS, 959, 117, 17, 128, 96, 14

EAKIN, 38, 8, 8, 9, 8, 8

EDMUNDSON, 48, 1, 0, 4, 1, 0

FARLEY, 249, 57, 10, 55, 46, 6

FARRAR, 173, 22, 7, 17, 17, 7

GANAN, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

GANTT, 85, 6, 4, 7, 5, 4

GARRARD, 15, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1

GATEWOOD, 251, 20, 2, 17, 14, 2

GORLEY, 5, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1

GREGORY, 726, 43, 5, 40, 35, 4

GRIGGS, 208, 44, 14, 59, 36, 10

HARPER, 1363, 234, 1, 281, 206, 1

HARRISON, 3639, 275, 9, 330, 208, 9

HARWELL, 162, 34, 7, 37, 29, 6

HAWKINS, 2816, 162, 7, 182, 121, 5

HEAD, 258, 86, 7, 96, 81, 7

HEARN, 141, 39, 21, 42, 36, 19

HODSON?, 16, 6, 0, 6, 6, 0

HOWARD, 3850, 423, 20, 510, 333, 14

HUDSON, 1291, 166, 10, 191, 135, 10

INGRAM, 653, 66, 4, 83, 49, 4

JENKINS, 3848, 569, 5, 557, 441, 4

JOHNSON, 33402, 2648, 33, 2972, 2089, 27

KEY, 532, 89, 5, 96, 74, 4

KILPATRIC, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

KILPATRICK, 97, 18, 1, 16, 11, 1

KIMBROUGH, 230, 65, 7, 67, 54, 7

LAWRENCE, 950, 152, 26, 153, 126, 23

LINCH, 81, 19, 0, 17, 15, 0

LITTLE, 984, 178, 42, 181, 153, 36

MADDON, 13, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

MARSHALL, 1756, 185, 8, 202, 151, 7

MIRE?, 18, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

MITCHEL, 1563, 151, 0, 185, 123, 0

MORTON, 1174, 76, 3, 89, 64, 3

MOSELY, 620, 82, 5, 80, 62, 5

MYRICK, 202, 82, 13, 77, 66, 10

NAPIER, 191, 70, 8, 72, 56, 6,

NICHOLSON, 453, 24, 0, 22, 16, 0

ODOM, 211, 35, 1, 38, 32, 1

ORICK, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

PARHAM, 424, 54, 9, 56, 50, 8

PASCHAL, 99, 65, 5, 60, 59, 2

PEARSON, 626, 49, 5, 77, 41, 4

PERRYMAN, 95, 20, 6, 32, 19, 6

PHILIPS, 748, 103, 0, 117, 86, 0

POUNDS, 55, 27, 2, 29, 23, 1

PRESLEY, 107, 22, 14, 18, 14, 8

RAINEY, 190, 37, 5, 38, 32, 5

REID, 1023, 248, 57, 241, 209, 49

RESPASS, 19, 6, 0, 4, 4, 0

ROPER, 217, 9, 0, 11, 7, 0

SADDLER, 135, 11, 1, 14, 9, 1

SAMPLES, 47, 13, 3, 13, 9, 3

SCOTT, 8407, 633, 16, 691, 498, 12

SINGLETON, 1321, 143, 8, 118, 105, 7

SLAUGHTER, 717, 92, 4, 107, 76, 3

SPARKS, 375, 92, 6, 97, 78, 3

SPIVEY, 119, 61, 23, 61, 54, 20

STEWART, 3648, 319, 4, 344, 252, 4

TERRELL, 401, 72, 2, 87, 61, 2

TRIPP, 101, 25, 1, 30, 24, 1

TURNER, 5742, 506, 16, 627, 420, 13

VAUGHN, 864, 49, 2, 61, 40, 2

VINCENT, 450, 24, 2, 30, 20, 1

WALKER, 8492, 199, 23, 1317, 997, 18

WALLER, 537, 49, 15, 44, 37, 12

WALTON, 1110, 248, 7, 267, 211, 6

WARD, 2525, 281, 23, 325, 241, 22

WELCH, 385, 37, 4, 48, 33, 4

WHITFIELD, 689, 90, 0, 99, 75, 0

WINCHEL, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0

WRIGHT, 5428, 670, 13, 765, 580, 13

WYNN, 300, 110, 0, 111, 91, 0

YOUNG, 6185, 540, 6, 611, 425, 6

ZACHERY, 12, 2, 0, 5, 2, 0

 

Return to Home and Links Page

You are the visitor to this page.