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MORGAN COUNTY, GEORGIA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, March 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Morgan County, Georgia, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Morgan County, Georgia census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

 

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Morgan County, Georgia census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

 

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Morgan County, Georgia in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

 

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

 

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Morgan County, Georgia (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 149) reportedly includes a total of 7,006 slaves. This transcription includes 101 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Morgan County, accounting for 3.068 slaves, or about 44% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 323 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County, the local district where they were counted and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a “B” being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term “County” is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Georgia in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, and the transcriber found the following in this County: 115 year old female black Sylva, held by John B. Walker on page 397; 100 female black Clovar held by C. R. Zachary on page 416; 100 female black Rhoda Fears held by Elizabeth Fears on page 421; and 102 male black Hamilton and 100 male black Jack, both held by A. F. Bird on page 426B. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Morgan County population included 2,983 whites, 7 “free colored” and 7,006 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased about 22% to 3,637, while the “colored” population stayed about the same at 7,058. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 5,360 whites, an increase of about 80% over 1860, but the 1960 total of “Negroes”was about 30% less than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries. Chatham County saw an increase in colored population of almost two thirds between 1860 and 1870, so obviously that is where many freed slaves went. Other Georgia Counties showing significant increases include Fulton, Houston and Richmond. Between 1860 and 1870, the Georgia colored population increased by 80,000, to 545,000, a 17% increase. Where did freed Georgia slaves go if they did not stay in Georgia? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Morgan County, included the following: Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ALISON, Elias, 39 slaves, Kingston, page 418B

ALLEN, Caswell, 26 slaves, Buckhead, page 425

ANDERSON, Lewis G., 35 slaves, Askins, page 401

BANKS, Francis A., 35 slaves, Town District, page 386

BERRY, E. J., 43 slaves, Adsborough, , page 407

BILLUPS, Joel A., 61 slaves, Town District, page 391B

BIRD, A. F., 82 slaves, Buckhead, page 426B

BONNER, Thomas S., 25 slaves, Shepherds, page 413

BOSWELL, Elizah, 29 slaves, Kingston, page 418

BROUGHTON, John A., 39 slaves, Town District, page 398B

BROUGHTON, William C., 21 slaves, Durdins, page 408B

BROWN, Amos, 32 slaves, Hellow, page 410

BROWN, Semion N., 64 slaves, Seats, page 412B

BURNEY, John W., 67 slaves, Town District, page 388B

BURNEY, Thos. J., 42 slaves, Town District, page 393B

BUTTER, David E., 37 slaves, Manns, page 411B

BUTTS, Jacob C., 23 slaves, Harris, page 404B

CAMPBELL, Lucinda, 34 slaves, Town District, page 398

CLARK, Lucy, W. H. Moss agt for, 37 slaves, Hellow, page 409B

COUSINS, William, 50 slaves, Buckhead, page 425

DAVENPORT, William, 60 slaves, Shepherds, page 414B

DAVIS, Nancy T., 20 slaves, Hellow, page 409B

DAVIS, Thomas J., 20 slaves, Manns, page 412B

DICKERSON, Calvin, 24 slaves, Shepherds, page 413

DOUGLAS, Robert, 73 slaves, Town District, page 392

DURDIN, John, 40 slaves, Durdins, page 408

FEARS, Elizabeth & 3 minors, 58 slaves, Goss, page 421

FEARS, John P., 24 slaves, Manns, page 412

FITZPATRICK, Zeno, 92 slaves, Shepherds, page 415

FOSTER, N. G., 57 slaves, Town District, page 383B

GUNN, Daniel G., 57 slaves, Buckhead, page 424

HAMMOND, Thomas, 20 slaves, Buckhead, page 426

HANSON, James F., 36 slaves, Hellow, page 410

HANSON, James F. [presumed], Gdn for 3 minors, 69 slaves, Hellow, page 410B

HANSON, John W., 28 slaves, Hellow, page 409B

HARDEN, Benjamin, 43 slaves, Adsborough, , page 407B

HARRIS, Benjamin, 93 slaves, Buckhead, page 424B

HARRIS, Robert, 28 slaves, Goss, page 420

HARRIS, Thomas, 38 slaves, Shepherds, page 414

HARWELL, L. T. P., 63 slaves, Shepherds, page 413B

HEAD, Nancy E., 37 slaves, Goss, page 419B

HEAD, Thomas W., 22 slaves, Goss, page 419B

HILL, Joshua, 59 slaves, Town District, page 393

JERKS?, James B., 66 slaves, Kingston, page 416

JESSUP, George R., 55 slaves, Town District, page 392

JOHNSON, John F., for 3 minors, 47 slaves, Kingston, page 416B

JOHNSON, John F., 34 slaves, Town District, page 395

JOHNSTON, Lancelot, 91 slaves, Town District, page 385

JOHNSTON, Susan E., 103 slaves, Town District, page 393B

JONES, Elijah E., 101 slaves, Town District, page 386B

JONES, Stephen, 22 slaves, Wellington, page 402

KOLB, Wilds, 199 slaves, Town District, page 396

LANE, Dawson B., 27 slaves, Whitfield, page 406

MALCOM, John G., 25 slaves, Fairplay, page 403

MANN, James N., 53 slaves, Manns, page 411

MARTIN, Felix B., 35 slaves, Town District, page 383B

MARTIN, George, 48 slaves, Goss, page 420

MAS,SEY, Nathan, 33 slaves, Manns, page 411

NEIL, William, 26 slaves, Seats, page 423

NOLAN, Martha B., 41 slaves, Askins, page 400B

OGILBY, Hugh S., 49 slaves, Town District, page 389B

PALMER, James agt, 71 slaves, Kingston, page 417B

PARTEE, Arthur, 25 slaves, Fairplay, page 403

PARY?, Jesse W.?, 32 slaves, Manns, page 411B

PASCHAL, John, 42 slaves, Kingston, page 417

PENNINGTON, Samuel, 46 slaves, Town District, page 386

PONDER, George F., 54 slaves, Fairplay, page 403B

PORTER, John W., 36 slaves, Town District, page 390

PRIOR, Robt. A., 25 slaves, Town District, page 384

REESE, Augustus, 49 slaves, Town District, page 390B

REID, James S., 74 slaves, Buckhead, page 425B

ROWLAND, James, 34 slaves, Kingston, page 419

RUARK, Samuel, 24 slaves, Askins, page 400B

SAFFOLD, Thomas P., 73 slaves, Buckhead, page 428

SASH?, J. B., Thomas _? Stark agt for, 56 slaves, Durdins, page 408B

SHEPHERD, Mary, 27 slaves, Hellow, page 409

SHEPHERD, Nancy & 6 minors, 114 slaves, Buckhead, page 427

SHOEMAKER, Charles J.?, 34 slaves, Seats, page 421B

SPEED, Terrell, 34 slaves, Town District, page 384B

STALLINGS, Thomas, 26 slaves, Whitfield, page 406

STOVALL, John, 30 slaves, Askins, page 400

STOVALL, Marshal K., 35 slaves, Goss, page 420B

TAYLOR, [presumed Thomas J.], R. Harris agt for, 53 slaves, Manns, page 412B

TERRELL, E. L., 52 slaves, Kingston, page 418

THOMASON, P. R., 27 slaves, Town District, page 382

THRASHER, Early W., 53 slaves, Town District, page 390B

WADE, Mary & 2 minors, 46 slaves, Town District, page 392B

WALKER, Edmond, 57 slaves, Town District, page 399

WALKER, John B., 143 slaves, Town District, page 397

WALKER, S. J.?, 32 slaves, Shepherds, page 413B

WALTON, Isaac L., 92 slaves, Town District, page 394B

WALTON, Mary P., 57 slaves, Town District, page 387B

WALTON, P. W. Est. of, 123 slaves, Town District, page 388

WELLBORN, Nancy, 22 slaves, Adsborough, , page 406B

WILSON, Leroy M., 32 slaves, Town District, page 384

WOOD, John C., 61 slaves, Kingston, page 418B

WOOD, Richard, 26 slaves, Kingston, page 418B

WYATT, G. W., 40 slaves, Seats, page 421B

WYATT?, G. W. [presumed] for 4 minors, 55 slaves, Seats, page 422

ZACHARY, C. R., 24 slaves, Kingston, page 416

ZACHARY, James, 20 slaves, Kingston, page 416

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

 

ALISON, 48, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0

ALLEN, 6198, 615, 15, 729, 513, 14

ANDERSON, 8123, 722, 11, 807, 591, 10

BANKS, 3019, 248, 4, 292, 204, 3

BERRY, 1958, 166, 5, 198, 127, 5

BILLUPS, 238, 59, 1, 70,52, 1

BIRD, 1401, 252, 11, 281, 220, 11

BONNER, 658, 106, 2, 111, 88, 2

BOSWELL, 273, 32, 2, 45, 30, 2

BROUGHTON, 152, 67, 16, 69, 61, 16

BROWN, 27013, 2419, 18, 2547, 1930, 15

BURNEY, 178, 47, 3, 57, 40, 3

BUTTER, 140, 8, 0, 8, 5, 0

BUTTS, 294, 135, 7, 135, 119, 6

CAMPBELL, 2897, 261, 10, 243, 203, 7

CLARK, 5807, 647, 13

COUSINS, 214, 12, 2, 10, 9, 1

DAVENPORT, 510, 97, 7, 97, 81, 6

DAVIS, 13725, 1329, 19, 1532, 1081, 18

DICKERSON, 890, 56, 2, 64, 46, 1

DOUGLAS, 906, 34, 2, 46, 25, 2

DURDIN, 3, 3, 1, 3, 3, 1

FEARS, 83, 37, 8, 45, 29, 6

FITZPATRICK, 212, 39, 6, 49, 36, 5

FOSTER, 2611, 274, 7, 328, 217, 7

GUNN, 367, 62, 3, 73, 54, 3

HAMMOND, 632, 89, 0, 85, 64, 0

HANSON, 309, 28, 1, 40, 26, 0

HARDEN, 577, 138, 3, 148, 124, 2

HARRIS, 11315, 1232, 30, 1401, 1029, 27

HARWELL, 162, 34, 8, 37, 29, 7

HEAD, 258, 86, 3, 96, 81, 3

HILL, 6675, 825, 7, 951, 671, 6

JERKS?, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

JESSUP, 37, 5, 0, 7, 5, 0

JOHNSON, 33402, 2648, 33, 2972, 2089, 29

JOHNSTON, 2186, 123, 0, 158, 100, 0

JONES, 27193, 2842, 29, 3155, 2331, 24

KOLB, 24, 8, 6, 7, 5, 5

LANE, 1402, 178, 9, 193, 148, 8

MALCOM, 35, 27, 0, 29, 26, 0

MANN, 558, 96, 2, 101, 86, 2

MARTIN, 5318, 560, 12, 616, 462, 11

MASSEY, 509, 57, 2, 55, 47, 2

NEIL, 205, 17, 0, 26, 15, 0

NOLAN, 101, 21, 7, 20, 18, 6

OGILBY, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

PALMER, 1211, 111, 2, 118, 89, 1

PARTEE, 86, 4, 1, 4, 4, 1

PARY?, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

PASCHAL, 99, 65, 6, 60, 59, 5

PENNINGTON, 196, 19, 6, 22, 13, 3

PONDER, 142, 97, 10, 93, 83, 10

PORTER, 2334, 229, 9, 241, 176, 8

PRIOR, 261, 62, 11, 73, 55, 11

REESE, 824, 162, 6, 201, 145, 6

REID, 1023, 248, 12, 241, 209, 12

ROWLAND, 182, 43, 1, 46, 39, 1

RUARK, 6, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2

SAFFOLD, 100, 17, 6, 44, 17, 6

SASH?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

SHEPHERD, 591, 85, 15, 103, 72, 13

SHOEMAKER, 65, 4, 4, 6, 3, 3

SPEED, 133, 12, 6, 14, 11, 5

STALLINGS, 137, 41, 4, 43, 37, 3

STOVALL, 217, 43, 4, 46, 38, 4

TAYLOR, 11696, 715, 17, 846, 552, 16

TERRELL, 401, 72, 3, 87, 61, 3

THOMASON, 113, 8, 0, 10, 5, 0

THRASHER, 93, 64, 5, 63, 59, 5

WADE, 1372, 127, 11, 156, 96, 8

WALKER, 8492, 1199, 33, 1317, 997, 28

WALTON, 1110, 248, 17, 267, 211, 14

WELLBORN, 38, 22, 7, 21, 20, 6

WILSON, 10819, 832, 4, 919, 672, 4

WOOD, 2672, 265, 2, 315, 227, 1

WYATT, 548, 70, 10, 83, 64, 9

ZACHARY, 19, 7, 0, 9, 6, 0

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