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LAFAYETTE COUNTY, ARKANSAS

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, March 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with these largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders

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SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Lafayette County, Arkansas (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 54) reportedly includes a total of 4,311 slaves. This transcription includes 47 slaveholders who held 26 or more slaves in Lafayette County, accounting for 2,621 slaves, or about 61% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 224 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ . In comparing census data for different years, changes in County boundaries, such as the taking of part of Lafayette County in 1871 to form part of Lincoln County and Lafayette acquiring part of Chicot County in 1879, have not been considered, on the presumption that the changes would have affected the comparison groups equally. For more precise comparison, the affect of the boundary changes should be fully calculated.

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the township where the slaves were enumerated, the name of the township and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a “B” being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Some of the pages were filmed out of sequence. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term “County” is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Arkansas in 1860 there were 69 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 307 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves nationwide. The transcriber noticed no such slave on this enumeration. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Lafayette County population included 4,146 whites, 7 “free colored” and 4,311 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population of Lafayette County had decreased about 4% to 3,981, while the “colored” population increased over 19% to 5,158. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 6,051 whites, about 46% more than 100 years earlier, while the 1960 total of 4,979 “Negroes”was about 15% more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) [These figures do not take into account changes in County boundaries if any.] Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in the County? Pulaski County saw an increase of 10,000 in the colored population in those ten years, but no other County in the State showed a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Arkansas colored population increased by 11,000, to 122,000, about a 10% increase. Where did freed slaves go if they did not stay in Arkansas? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Lafayette County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 to 545,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST (in order as counted):

 

LEE, Ira, guardian for 3 minors, 34 slaves, La Grange, page 9

CRYER, Morgan, 40 slaves, La Grange, page 10

FORT, Lewis B., 59 slaves, La Grange, page 10B

CRYER, Wiley T., 44 slaves, La Grange, page 11

BOYD, H. C. & MILLS, Massey, [of] Virginia, by S. W. Henley, Agt., 55 slaves, La Grange, page 11

CULBERSON, S. F., 31 slaves, La Grange, page 12

LEMAY, Henry M., 119 slaves, La Grange, page 13

WRIGHT, Elizabeth R., Washington City D.C., by H. Lands overseer, 120 slaves, La Grange, page 14

LESTER, William M., 26 slaves, La Grange, page 14B

HOWARD, J. C.?, 33 slaves, La Grange, page 16

MORRIS, Wm. F., Decd., Estate of, by J. E.? Scott overseer, 34 slaves, La Grange, page 16

MCCLINTOCK, Jas. R., 137 slaves, La Grange, page 16

DICKSON, D. H. & J. P., 90 slaves, La Grange, page 17

BATTLE, Jas. J., 37 slaves, La Grange, page 17B

FOSTER, George W., 29 slaves, La Grange, page 18

TRIGG, John, Memphis Tennessee owner, by C.? M. Crabtree overseer, 132 slaves, Red River, page 19, ends on 20

IVY, Thomas, Bowie County Texas, by Bennett Crudye? Overseer, 61 slaves, Red River, page 19B ends on 19

GLASS, J. B., 94 slaves, Red River, page 20B

CRYER, Thomas M., 40 slaves, Red River, page 21

NASH, Phebe, 38 slaves, Red River, page 21B

DICKSON, David H. Owner Lafayette County Ark., by J. Waggoner overseer, 75 slaves, Red River, page 21B

PAUP & BOWDEN?, Hempsted County Ark., by J. Stimson overseer, 39 slaves, Red River, page 22B

WRIGHT, E. R., Wasghington City D.C. owner, by W. H. James overseer, 87 slaves, Red River, page 23

TINN?, Nancy owner, Hempsted County Ark., by G. M. Jinks overseer, 39 slaves, Red River, page 24

HENRY, Fowlks, Hempsted County Ark., C. T. Sanders overseer, 67 slaves, Red River, page 24

HENRY, C. M., Hempsted County Ark., by himself, 66 slaves, Red River, page 25

JONES, Isaac N. Decd. Estate of, by G. W. Wood overseer, 84 slaves, Red River, page 25B

PERSON, ___eria? K., 36 slaves, Red River, page 26

GARLAND, Joseph, 50 slaves, Red River, page 26B

WYNN, Robt. H., 105 slaves, Red River, page 26B

DICKSON, David H., guardian for [not named], 67 slaves, Red River, page 27B

BRANDON, W. M., Spring Hill Ark., 48 slaves, Red River, page 28

DUTY, R. B., 29 slaves, Roane, page 29

BRADLEY, Wm. C., 42 slaves, Roane, page 29B

PETERSON, Batt, 47 slaves, Roane, page 29B

CRABTREE, Wm., Hempsted County Ark., by Thos. K. Crabtree, Agt., 52 slaves, Roane, page 30

HAMITER, John H., 35 slaves, Roane, page 30B

CONWAY, Mary J., Hempsted County Ark., by G. W. Montgomery overseer, 53 slaves, Roane, page 30B

ANTHONY, D. E., 41 slaves, Roane, page 31

CARVILLE?, Wm., 26 slaves, Roane, page 31B

BOOKER, P. R., 29 slaves, Roane, page 31B

DICKSON, David E., 31 slaves, Roane, page 32

PALMER, A. D., Louisiana, by Wm. R. Blanton overseer, 36 slaves, Sulphur Fork, page 33

BLANTON, Richard, 35 slaves, Sulphur Fork, page 34

DUBOSE, Edwin E., 44 slaves, Walker’s Creek, page 35

BLACK, Alex P., 36 slaves, Walker’s Creek, page 35

LEE, Ferdinand, 69 slaves, Roane, page 36B

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

ANTHONY, 660, 34, 0, 7, 4, 0

BATTLE, 900, 4, 1, 1, 1, 0

BLACK, 2318, 71, 11, 31, 23, 7

BLANTON, 154, 6, 1, 4, 3, 0

BOOKER, 1338, 41, 4, 14, 9, 1

BOWDEN?, 232, 8, 0, 2, 2, 0

BOYD, 1905, 54, 8, 21, 19, 6

BRADLEY, 1305, 62, 8, 25, 20, 3

BRANDON, 308, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0

CARVILLE?, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CONWAY, 335, 26, 10, 17, 17, 6

CRABTREE, 38, 6, 4, 3, 3, 3

CRYER, 21, 4, 4, 2, 2, 2

CULBERSON, 43, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DICKSON, 1134, 57, 7, 17, 12, 3

DUBOSE, 252, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

DUTY, 29, 1, 1, 3, 0, 0

FORT, 421, 17, 8, 7, 5, 3

FOSTER, 2611, 96, 9, 37, 30, 2

GARLAND, 286, 6, 0, 3, 3, 0

GLASS, 380, 10, 3, 3, 3, 2

HAMITER, 25, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HENRY, 2782, 83, 3, 22, 15, 0

HOWARD, 3850, 83, 3, 25, 20, 0

IVY, 224, 7, 0, 3, 3, 0

JONES, 27193, 735, 26, 254, 180, 10

LEE, 6357, 154, 8, 51, 29, 2

LEMAY, 18, 7, 5, 4, 4, 4

LESTER, 356, 9, 1, 2, 2, 0

MCCLINTOCK, 29, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MILLS, 1455, 27, 0, 9, 6, 0

MORRIS, 3112, 59, 2, 20, 16, 0

NASH, 629, 26, 7, 12, 9, 1

PALMER, 1211, 21, 0, 9, 8, 0

PAUP, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0

PERSON, 144, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0

PETERSON, 1101, 13, 0, 7, 4, 0

TINN?, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

TRIGG, 101, 3, 2, 0, 0, 0

WRIGHT, 5428, 114, 7, 48, 24, 1

WYNN, 300, 11, 0, 2, 2, 0

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