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RUSSELL COUNTY, ALABAMA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, October 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Russell County, Alabama, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Russell County, Alabama census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Russell County, Alabama census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Russell County, Alabama in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Russell County, Alabama (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 35) reportedly includes a total of 15,638 slaves. This transcription includes 98 slaveholders who held 40 or more slaves in Russell County, accounting for 6,497 slaves, or 41% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 946 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the locality where the slaves were enumerated and the first census page on which they were listed. For slaveholders on pages lower than page 57, the transcription also includes the local Beat number shown on the census page. For the holders on page 57 and higher, no Beat number was shown and all those pages indicated Southern Division. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Alabama in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves nationwide. The transcriber did not notice any such slaves named in this county. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Russell County population included 10,936 whites, 18 "free colored" and 15,638 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population of Russell County had decreased almost 46% to 5,946, while the "colored" population stayed almost exactly the same at 15,690. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 23,365 whites, about twice as many as 100 years earlier, but the 1960 total of 22,906 "Negroes"was only about half again what the colored population had been 100 years before.) Where did the freed slaves go who did not stay in this county? Dallas, Montgomery and Mobile counties in Alabama all saw increases in the colored population between 1860 and 1870, so that could be where some of these Alabama freed slaves went. Between 1860 and 1870, the Alabama colored population increased by 37,000, to 475,000, a 17% increase. It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries.

Where did freed Alabama slaves go if they did not stay in Alabama? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Russell County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 to 545,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ABERCROMBIE, Anderson, 80 slaves, page 57

ABERCROMBIE, Charles F., 49 slaves, page 57B

ALLEN, S. A., 62 slaves, Beat 13, page 55

ANDERSON, Gearge, 62 slaves, page 106

BARNETT, Willam, 50 slaves, page 66B

BATTLE, Cullen, 111 slaves, page 80

BAUGH, Edward, 51 slaves, Beat 5, page 27B

BELLAMY, Willaim, 41, 69B

BENTON, Samuel C., 52 slaves, page 59

BERRY, Thoams, 44 slaves, page 76

BILLUPS, John R., 56 slaves, page 107

BOYKIN, Sterling R., 42 slaves, page 70B

BOYKIN, Thoams C., 52 slaves, page 99

BRADLEY, Forbes, 83 slaves, page 99B

BUCHANAN, John, 60 slaves, Beat 9, page 33B

BUCHANAN?, Richard, 145 slaves, Beat 9, page 32

BURT?, W. W., 45 slaves, Beat 11, page 42

BUTTS, John, 66 slaves, page 76B

CALHOUN, Elisha, 141 slaves, page 96B

CASTER, James, 83 slaves, page 111

CHAMBERS, James M. Jr., 67 slaves, page 104

CHAPMAN, Bradford, 90 slaves, page 58B

CHAPMAN, James A., 68 slaves, page 85

COOK, James C., 71 slaves, page 92B

CRAWFORD, Martin J., 51 slaves, page 78B

CROWELL, John, 45 slaves, page 91

DAWKINS, Reuben, 59 slaves, Beat 1, page 19

DAWSEY, J. owner, H. B. Singleton agent, 41 slaves, Beat 12, page 49B

DAWSON, Davis, 40 slaves, page 80B

DAWSON, Edgar, 106 slaves, page 103

DAWSON, Henry B., 53 slaves, page 72B

DAWSON, Thomas H., 63 slaves, page 82

DAWSON, William C., 71 slaves, page 86

DELAUNNY?, Augustus G., 99 slaves, page 77

DUNN, J. V., 41 slaves, Beat 11, page 43B

EDWARDS, Toula?, 54 slaves, Beat 12, page 50

FLOURNY, Robert, 83 slaves, page 57B

GARITY, James, 82 slaves, page 59

HALLADAY, Dickinson, 67 slaves, page 82B

HARGROVES, W. D., 42 slaves, Beat 9, page 34B

HARRIS, W. W., 50 slaves, Beat 5, page 25

HARRY, M. W. owner, A.? W. Hoskins empl., 53 slaves, Beat 5, page 22B

HOWARD, Augustus, 41 slaves, page 93B

HOWARD, Homer V.?, 42 slaves, page 86B

HOWARD, Ralph O., 81 slaves, page 105B

HOWARD, Thacker, 42 slaves, page 63B

HUNT, J. T. owner, R. Ready employer, 84 slaves, Beat 5, page 25B

HUNT, W. owner, W. Doles employer, 71 slaves, Beat 5, page 29

HURT, Augustus, 45 slaves, page 95B

HURT, Henry, 68 slaves, page 88

HURT, Joel E., 104 slaves, page 95B

HURT, John, 80 slaves, page 95

INGERSOLL, Stephen M., 59 slaves, page 113B

INGRAM, Bat., 115 slaves, Beat 9, page 32

JOHNSON, L. S., 47 slaves, Beat 5, page 30B

JONES, Anderson, 49 slaves, Beat 1, page 21

JONES, F. G., 75 slaves, Beat 1, page 20

JONES, James R., 97 slaves, page 71

KEY, Henry, 43 slaves, Beat 5, page 23B

LEDBETTER, Henry W., 45V84B

LEONARD, Vann Sr., 50 slaves, page 87

LEONARD, Vann A., 47 slaves, page 77B

LEWIS, James C., 54 slaves, page 64B

LEWIS, Owen L., 40 slaves, page 66

LINDSAY, Sherwood C., 73 slaves, page 94

LOWTHER, Wm., 61 slaves, Beat 13, page 52B

MARTIN, Edward N., 69 slaves, page 79

MCDOUGALD, Duncan, 74 slaves, page 107B

MITCHELL, Abraham, 46 slaves, page 83B

MITCHELL, Wm. H., 81 slaves, page 92B

MOFFETT, Henry owner, L. T. Bradley employer, 96 slaves, Beat 1, page 18

MORELAND, Asbery F., 41 slaves, page 71B

MOTT?, R. L. owner, W. L. Marter manager, 79 slaves, Beat 13, page 53B

MUSTIN?, J. L. owner, A. T. Morgan employer, 58 slaves, Beat 1, page 21B

NELMS, Charles, 50 slaves, Beat 11, page 44B

NESBITT, Francis A., 42 slaves, page 63B

NUCKOLLS, Nathaniel, 73 slaves, page 73

PACE, John, 43 slaves, Beat 13, page 55B

PERRY, Mary, 42 slaves, page 89B

PERSONS, Prudence, 56 slaves, page 83

PHILIPS, James, 89 slaves, page 65B

POWELL, Joseph S., 42 slaves, page 79B

SHORTER, Elizabeth, 52 slaves, page 78B

SHORTER, Mary E., 58 slaves, page 108B

SMITH, H. C. A., 40 slaves, Beat 13, page 52

STROTHER, John A. 86 slaves, page 88B

TARVER, John, 76 slaves, page 81

TOLLIVER, Charles B., 69 slaves, page 108B

TURNER, James A., 125 slaves, page 100

VANN, Henry M., 42 slaves, page 93B

WARE, Britten M., 41 slaves, page 60B

WELLBORN, Marshall J., 54 slaves, page 73B

WHITAKER, Emma, 48 slaves, page 63

WHITE, Theodore, 59 slaves, Beat 1, page 19B

WILDMAN, Percilla Y., 61 slaves, page 87B

WILLIAMS, Wm. Owner, John Biddle employer, 68 slaves, Beat 10, page 39

WOOLFOLK, Thomas J., 57 slaves, page 85B

WRIGHT, James, 390 slaves, page 100B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ABERCROMBIE, 66, 34, 17, 28, 25, 11

ALLEN, 6198, 540, 14, 508, 323, 6

ANDERSON, 8173, 419, 5, 381, 219, 0

BARNETT, 755, 123, 2, 98, 76, 0

BATTLE, 900, 196, 40, 129, 112, 18

BAUGH, 1251, 24, 2, 15, 13, 0

BELLAMY, 145, 12, 8, 2, 2, 2

BENTON, 569, 22, 8, 27, 14, 4

BERRY, 1958, 156, 13, 136, 92, 6

BILLUPS, 238, 39, 1, 36, 25, 0

BOYKIN, 399, 146, 6, 92, 78, 5

BRADLEY, 1305, 92, 5, 89, 57, 2

BUCHANAN, 437, 29, 12, 20, 12, 4

BURT?, 332, 87, 0, 65, 57, 0

BUTTS, 294, 29, 10, 18, 14, 2

CALHOUN, 560, 119, 18, 78, 61, 8

CASTER, 80, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0

CHAMBERS, 1237, 136, 17, 118, 84, 7

CHAPMAN, 1251, 168, 10, 140, 106, 4

COOK, 3149, 409, 15, 339, 253, 4

CRAWFORD, 1876, 236, 10, 191, 146, 4

CROWELL, 108, 31, 23, 18, 15, 11

DAWKINS, 191, 21, 0, 12, 11, 0

DAWSEY, 32, 2, 0, 1, 1, 0

DAWSON, 1079, 189, 51, 108., 78, 22

DELAUNNY?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DUNN, 994, 77, 2, 50, 32, 1

EDWARDS, 3741, 355, 6, 296, 203, 0

FLOURNY, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, o

GARITY, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HALLADAY, 4, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

HARGROVES, 35, 9, 0, 10, 4, 0

HARRIS, 11315, 1052, 20, 910, 648, 7

HARRY, 150, 21, 0, 18, 12, 0

HOWARD, 3850, 416, 42, 309, 221, 13

HUNT, 1517, 86, 7, 82, 53, 3

HURT, 398, 120, 63, 67, 62, 26

INGERSOLL, 6, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

INGRAM, 653, 88, 24, 63, 51, 8

JOHNSON, 33402, 2048, 79, 1783, 1130, 40

JONES, 27193, 2497, 69, 2125, 1451, 26

KEY, 532, 92, 5, 79, 61, 2

LEDBETTER, 155, 12, 0, 13, 8, 0

LEONARD, 415, 40, 20, 39, 22, 7

LEWIS, 8707, 729, 39, 635, 449, 18

LINDSAY, 350, 17, 1, 16, 11, 0

LOWTHER, 17, 6, 0, 2, 2, 0

MARTIN, 5318, 457, 19, 377, 270, 4

MCDOUGALD, 78, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MITCHELL, 4089, 512, 58, 400, 320, 29

MOFFETT, 41, 9, 0, 2, 0, 0

MORELAND, 189, 18, 3, 13, 12, 0

MOTT?, 134, 27, 0, 13, 10, 0

MUSTIN?, 13, 11, 0, 6, 6, 0

NELMS, 84, 22, 0, 13, 10, 0

NESBITT, 72, 3, 0, 4, 2, 0

NUCKOLLS, 12, 4, 3, 3, 3, 3

PACE, 280, 48, 5, 37, 25, 3

PERRY, 2432, 279, 24, 224, 162, 13

PERSONS, 211, 28, 3, 14, 10, 1

PHILIPS, 748, 75, 6, 65, 53, 4

POWELL, 2420, 298, 10, 232, 183, 7

SHORTER, 317, 64, 13, 37, 28, 5

SMITH, 29087, 2290, 47, 1820, 286, 21

STROTHER, 392, 47, 4, 20, 19, 3

TARVER, 171, 62, 8, 45, 42, 4

TOLLIVER, 119, 2, 0, 5, 2, 0

TURNER, 5742, 620, 13, 479, 352, 4

VANN, 180, 47, 20, 33, 32, 9

WARE, 998, 212, 9, 146, 123, 3

WELLBORN, 38, 14, 2, 10, 8, 0

WHITAKER, 513, 32, 6, 22, 15, 2

WHITE, 9567, 693, 14, 622, 406, 5

WILDMAN, 5, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0

WILLIAMS, 28865. 2335, 101, 2095, 1417, 42

WOOLFOLK, 120, 15, 14, 6, 6, 6

WRIGHT, 5428, 463, 43, 360, 260, 13

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