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PICKENS COUNTY, ALABAMA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, February, 2002

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Pickens County, Alabama, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Pickens County, Alabama census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Pickens County, Alabama census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Pickens County, Alabama in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Pickens County, Alabama census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Pickens County, Alabama in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Pickens County, Alabama (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 34) reportedly includes a total of 12,191 slaves. This transcription includes 83 slaveholders who held 32 or more slaves in Pickens County, accounting for 4,786 slaves, or 39% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 988 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Unfortunately, the information on this particular census film suffers not only from poor penmanship, but also from the filming of several pages out of sequence, with several of the original pages apparently missing and not filmed. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County, the locality listed and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Alabama in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves nationwide. Though not specifically looking for slave names, the transcriber did notice thee following: on page 315B, held by Tyne(?) Spann, 105 year old male Charles, "supposed to be born in Africa is active and sprightly and works every day at his own will - enjoys all his senses fully"; page 319, held by heirs of Mrs. Ellis, 100 year old female Hannah Ellis; page 333, held by John Billups, 102 year old male Nat; page 356B, held by Frances Ballard, 103 year old male Peter; page 361, held by Mary J. Trantham, 140 (so written) year old male "Cain (Africa)"; and on page 322B, held by James Gunter, is a 15 year old male listed as a mulatto, but saying, "This boy is an albino though supposed to be full blood negro". Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Pickens County population included 10,117 whites, 8 "free colored" and 12,191 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population of Pickens County had decreased about 20% to 8,052, while the "colored" population decreased about 21% to 9,638. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 12,098 whites, about 20% more than 100 years earlier, while the 1960 total of 9,784 "Negroes"was about 20% less than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) Where did the freed slaves go who did not stay in this county? Dallas, Montgomery and Mobile counties in Alabama all saw increases in the colored population between 1860 and 1870, so that could be where some of these Alabama freed slaves went. Between 1860 and 1870, the Alabama colored population increased by 37,000, to 475,000, a 17% increase. It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries.

Where did freed Alabama slaves go if they did not stay in Alabama? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Pickens County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 to 545,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ADAMS, Tolbert, 93 slaves, Southern Div., page 357B

ATKINSON, Bennett, 47 slaves, Southern Div., page 373

AVREY, David, 53 slaves, Pol Cat, page 386

AVREY?, Bryant, 119 slaves, Brush Creek, page 385

BALLARD, Frances, 43 slaves, Southern Div., page 356B

BARNES, John J. Sen., 36 slaves, Southern Div., page 346B

BEALL, John R., 60 slaves, Southern Div., page 356B

BILLUPS, John, 34 slaves, Southern Div., page 333

BINION, Martin, 55 slaves, Southern Div., page 365

BONNER, James, 79 slaves, Southern Div., page 345

BONNER, John T., 52 slaves, Southern Div., page 368

BONNER, John C., 69 slaves, Southern Div., page 347

BOUCHELLE, Ezra T., 34 slaves, Southern Div., page 375B

BROWN, George, 50 slaves, Clarksville?, page 380B

CHALMERS, James, 32 slaves, Southern Div., page 338B

CLARK, Thomas J., 41 slaves, Southern Div., page 344

CLARK, Thomas C., 117 slaves, Southern Div., page 353

COOK, Major, 110 slaves, Southern Div., page 351B

CRAWFORD, Nelson A., 87 slaves, Southern Div., page 364B

CUNNINGHAM, Joseph, 70 slaves, Southern Div., page 345B

DANCY & LITTLE, 73 slaves, Southern Div., page 357

DAVIS, A. W., 65 slaves, Plantersville, page 387B

DEANS, Samuel A., 56 slaves, Southern Div., page 359

DOSS, S. P.?, 51 slaves, Pickensville, page 326

EASTERWOOD, David, 39 slaves, Carrollton, page 307

FARMER, Isaac, 38 slaves, Southern Div., page 354B

FERGUSON, Est. Wm. C., 58 slaves, Pickensville, page 325

FERGUSON, H., 39 slaves, Carrollton, page 321B

GAMER?, Jno. W., 78 slaves, Memphis, page 314B

GARDNER, Thomas B., 34 slaves, Southern Div., page 339B

GILES, Milton, 69 slaves, Southern Div., page 370

GLASS, Hiram, 48 slaves, Corrs, page 309B

GREGORY, J. W., 35 slaves, Pickensville, page 326B

GREGORY, J.? W.?, 35 slaves, Pickensville, page 328B

HARPER, Josiah, 40 slaves, Nabers, page 317B

HARRISON, Nathaniel H., 162 slaves, Southern Div., page 355B

HENLEY, Albert T., 65 slaves, Southern Div., page 362

HENRY, Jas., 44 slaves, Henry, page 312

HINTON, William G., 56 slaves, Southern Div., page 348B

HOOD, Archibald, 77 slaves, Southern Div., page 373B

HOOD, Samuel W., 44 slaves, Southern Div., page 342B

HUGHS, Wm., 63 slaves, Southern Div., page 334

INGRAM, James M., 43 slaves, Southern Div., page 375

IRISH?, John R., 88 slaves, Southern Div., page 350B

IVY, Bird, 36 slaves, Southern Div., page 352B

IVY, Jessee A., 50 slaves, Southern Div., page 349B

JONES _____?, J. A., 40 slaves, Brush Creek, page 385

JONES, Jno. B., 36 slaves, Corrs, page 311

LANG, Wm., 70 slaves, Pickensville, page 327

LANIER, Thomas C., 51 slaves, Southern Div., page 369B

LATHAM, A, 70 slaves, Carrollton, page 308

LAVENDER, William T. Lavernder for 3 minors, 38 slaves, Southern Div., page 370B

LEE, Jno. J., 55 slaves, Pickensville, page 323

LOWE, Jas., 49 slaves, Corrs, page 309

LYON, Andrew, 56 slaves, Southern Div., page 359B

MANNING, Wright W., 69 slaves, Southern Div., page 372B

MARTIN, J. H., 56 slaves, Pickensville, page 327B

MCCAN, B. B., 149 slaves, Southern Div., page 343

MCKINSTRY, Thos. W., 33 slaves, Southern Div., page 374B

MCWILLE, Adam, 71 slaves, Southern Div., page 335B

MINOR, Lafayett M., 34 slaves, Southern Div., page 348B

MURRAH, Reverd Wm.?, 61 slaves, Yorkville, page 305B

NANCE, Jas., 32 slaves, Carrollton?, page 308B

OWEN, John W., 47 slaves, Southern Div., page 373

PEARSON, Joel E., 43 slaves, Southern Div., page 360

PELTY?, R. B., 45 slaves, Nabers, page 316

SALMOND, Burwell B., 59 slaves, Southern Div., page 335

SCOTT, Mrs. Elizabeth, 52 slaves, Southern Div., page 358

SNODDY, Samuel, 70 slaves, Southern Div., page 366

SOMERVILLE, James F., 53 slaves, Southern Div., page 349B

SPANN, Tyne?, 49 slaves, Memphis, page 315B

SPENCER, Shepherd, 34 slaves, Southern Div., page 354B

SPRUELL, Jeptha, 85 slaves, Southern Div., page 347B

STANSEL, William, 39 slaves, Southern Div., page 338

SUMMERVILLE, William H., 41 slaves, Southern Div., page 340

TAYLOR, Frances, 40 slaves, Southern Div., page 336

TRAMMELL, E. E., 39 slaves, Pol Cat/Memphis, page 386B ends on 314

TURNIPSEED, Daniel Estate, James W. Puckett in trust for or admr of, 79 slaves, Southern Div., page 378

WALLAN?, J.?, 37 slaves, Pickensville, page 328

WELLS, Absolom, 52 slaves, Southern Div., page 365

WHITSETT, J. T., 555 slaves, Brush Creek, page 384B

WILDER, Gaston H., 40 slaves, Southern Div., page 372

WINDHAM, Levi, 80 slaves, Southern Div., page 358B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ADAMS, 4295, 384, 17, 334, 232, 13

ATKINSON, 465, 23, 4, 17, 13, 4

AVREY, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BALLARD, 633, 43, 9, 31, 21, 3

BARNES, 2155, 167, 6, 139, 103, 1

BEALL, 189, 5, 0, 3, 0, 0

BILLUPS, 238, 39, 22., 36, 25, 17

BINION, 48, 23, 22, 10, 7, 7

BONNER, 658, 122, 35, 119, 81, 22

BOUCHELLE, 6, 5, 5, 4, 4, 4

BROWN, 27013, 1585, 15, 1321, 878, 8

CHALMERS, 78, 10, 10, 5, 5, 5

CLARK, 5807, 334, 28, 361, 201, 23

COOK, 3149, 409, 26, 339, 253, 13

CRAWFORD, 1876, 236, 16, 191, 146, 9

CUNNINGHAM, 1016, 242, 32, 155, 133, 19

DANCY, 135, 29, 15, 20, 12, 7

DAVIS, 13725, 1122, 3, 1004, 698, 3

DEANS, 68, 8, 7, 4, 4, 3

DOSS, 114, 22, 11, 28, 18, 11

EASTERWOOD, 4, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0

FARMER,569, 41, 14, 27, 18, 9

FERGUSON, 675, 36, 16, 42, 23, 11

GAMER?, 15, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0

GARDNER, 1309, 166, 16, 133, 103, 11

GILES, 662, 25, 6, 33, 16, 4

GLASS, 380, 54, 8, 41, 36, 7

GREGORY, 726, 71, 27, 54, 48, 16

HARPER, 1363, 121, 5, 126, 72, 4

HARRISON, 3639, 349, 4, 320, 220, 4

HENLEY, 125, 14, 0, 12, 8, 0

HENRY, 2782, 263, 19, 236, 151, 8

HINTON, 615, 83, 17, 52, 43, 7

HOOD, 561, 92, 40, 82, 61, 28

HUGHS, 469, 18, 0, 24, 9, 0

INGRAM, 653, 88, 3, 63, 51, 0

IRISH?, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

IVY, 224, 21, 7, 28, 12, 3

JONES, 27193, 2497, 47, 2125, 1451, 36

LANG, 282, 55, 20, 49, 30, 14

LANIER, 260, 79, 11, 57, 52, 7

LATHAM, 184, 41, 20, 38, 32, 17

LAVENDER, 76, 39, 2, 17, 16, 0

LEE, 6357, 644, 9, 490, 371, 3

LITTLE, 984, 135, 3, 96, 82, 1

LOWE, 529, 53, 9, 46, 36, 6

LYON, 307, 38, 11, 32, 25, 7

MANNING, 448, 76, 26, 80, 51, 19

MARTIN, 5318, 457, 12, 377, 270, 10

MCCAN, 46, 14, 0, 11, 10, 0

MCKINSTRY, 16, 9, 7, 6, 6, 5

MCWILLE, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MINOR, 660, 26, 90, 20, 17, 0

MURRAH, 39, 16, 10, 19, 12, 8

NANCE, 268, 51, 4, 47. 39, 2

OWEN, 851, 110, 7, 87, 63, 2

PEARSON, 626, 107, 14, 69, 58, 9

PELTY?, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

SALMOND, 19, 7, 7, 1, 1, 1

SCOTT, 8407, 565, 3, 473, 322, 2

SNODDY, 46, 17, 0, 11, 11, 0

SOMERVILLE, 155, 58, 54, 31, 30, 28

SPANN, 265, 102, 36, 57, 46, 17

SPENCER, 1560, 163, 6, 154, 113, 3

SPRUELL, 38, 4, 0, 1, 1, 0

STANSEL, 14, 9, 9, 5, 5, 5

SUMMERVILLE, 60, 6, 0, 6, 3, 0

TAYLOR, 11696, 934, 19, 800, 547, 10

TRAMMELL, 39, 8, 0, 6, 5, 0

TURNIPSEED, 83, 21, 14, 19, 13, 10

WALLAN?, 7, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

WELLS, 1647, 74, 13, 73, 46, 8

WHITSETT, 43, 16, 0, 14, 11, 0

WILDER, 275, 45, 21, 32, 30, 15

WINDHAM, 82, 34, 20, 39, 25, 16

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