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MONTGOMERY COUNTY, ALABAMA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, May 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Montgomery County, Alabama, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Montgomery County, Alabama census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Montgomery County, Alabama census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Montgomery County, Alabama in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Montgomery County, Alabama (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 33) reportedly includes a total of 23,710 slaves, which ranks as the third highest total in the State and the seventh highest in the U.S. in 1860. This transcription includes 114 slaveholders who held 50 or more slaves in Montgomery County, accounting for 10,076 slaves, or 42% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 1,271 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first census page on which they were listed. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated. All the holders were listed as in District 1 of the County, except for those found on pages 241 to 273B, which were listed as District2. The holder on page 279 had no District shown.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Alabama in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not find any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders, except for the following four males who were held by the holders with the same page number: 108 year old Chester at page 161; 100 year old Captain at page 165B; 100 year old Will at page 226B; and 120 year old Isaac at page 231B. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Montgomery County population included 12,122 whites, 70 "free colored" and 23,710 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased only about 2% to 12,419, while the "colored" population increased almost 32% to 31,285. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 104,485 whites, almost a nine fold increase, but the 1960 total of 64,474 "Negroes"was less than three times what the colored population had been 100 years before.) Montgomery was a likely point of migration for slaves from other Alabama Counties. Between 1860 and 1870, the Alabama colored population increased by 37,000, to 475,000, a 17% increase. Where did freed Alabama slaves go if they did not stay in Alabama? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Montgomery County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 to 545,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ALFORD, J. C., 55 slaves, page 262B

ARRINGTON, Samuel, 146 slaves, page 187B

ASHLEY, Felix, 55 slaves, page 227B

BARNETT, N. D., 99 slaves, page 182B

BARNETT, Sarah G., 84 slaves, page 247B

BARNETT, Thomas, 75 slaves, page 181B

BARTON, John G.?, 51 slaves, page 195

BELLINGER, C., 74 slaves, page 203

BIBB, B. H., 125 slaves, page 145B

BIBB, J. D., 56 slaves, page 159B

BIBB, J. B., 53 slaves, page 231

BRENARD, R. A., Micagah Thomas Agent, 55 slaves, page 159B

BROWN, E.? D., 65 slaves, page 223B

BUNCH, A. J., 69 slaves, page 180

BUTHAY?, T. B., 221 slaves, page 221

CAFFEY, H. M., 89 slaves, page 216B

CALLOWAY, Willis, 72 slaves, page 187

CALLOWAY, Willis for 2 others, 117 slaves, page 157B

CALOWAY, Willis, 60 slaves, page 218B

CANTELLOU, Mary, 53 slaves, page 152B

CARTER, Andrew, 67 slaves, page 179

CHAMBLESS, Emaline S., 85 slaves, page 164B

COLE, Elizabeth, Plantation, 110 slaves, page 213B

CRAYNE, Spencer, 58 slaves, page 246B

DILLAHAY, Jas. M., 89 slaves, page 241

DILLIARD, James R., 70 slaves, page 273B

EASON, P., J. H. Ware for, 100 slaves, page 196

ELSBERRY, Foster, 54 slaves, page 262B

EUBANKS, J. L., 67 slaves, page 251

FRAZIER, William, 75 slaves, page 153

FREEMAN, Fleming, 179 slaves, page 232B

GILMER, F. M. Jr., 102 slaves, page 247

GILMER, Peachey B., 149 slaves, page 224

GILMORE, James J., 121 slaves, page 105B

GILMORE, W. B. S., 136 slaves, page 167

GILMORE, William B., 58 slaves, page 183B

GORDEN, John W., 60 slaves, page 137

GRANT?, G. T. & W. A., 79 slaves, page 236

GREGG, T.? B., 70 slaves, page 186B

GUNTER, G. G., 116 slaves, page 217B

HAIN, R. M., 71 slaves, page 190B

HALE, George W., 64 slaves, page 163B

HENRY, H. W., 53 slaves, page 147B

HOLMES, Henry, 96 slaves, page 230

HOLT, Albert A., 71 slaves, page 186

HOLT, John H., 51 slaves, page 202B

HOOD, Bauley? H., 55 slaves, page 172B

HOY?, Wm., 55 slaves, page 215

HUNTER, F. W., 50 slaves, page 216B

JONES, B. R., 100 slaves, page 234

JONES, B. C., 57 slaves, page 235B

JONES, Jason G., 81 slaves, page 185

JUDGE, T. J., 67 slaves, page 200

JUDKINS, James H., 65 slaves, page 209 (duplicate pages disregarded)

JUDKINS, John C., 69 slaves, page 211

JUDKINS, W. T., 93 slaves, page 189

LOMAX, T., 133 slaves, page 134B

LUCAS, Charles L., 163 slaves, page 207B

LUCAS, Est. of H. H., overseed by A. Holliman, Line Creek Plantation, 110 slaves, page 176B

LUCAS, Estate of H. Dec., J. H. Judkins Executor, Mt. Miggs? Upper & Bradshaw Lower Plant., 275 slaves, page 209

LUCAS, William, 52 slaves, page 179B

MANNING, William W., 64 slaves, page 156B

MARKS, James, 81 slaves, page 167B

MARKS, Laurnel? B., 161 slaves, page 245B

MARKS, Wm., 93 slaves, page 226B

MARTIN, Peter B., 117 slaves, page 219

MARTIN?, G. H., 70 slaves, page 214B

MATHEWS, Charles L., 67 slaves, page 170B

MATHEWS, F. M.,57 slaves, page 183B

MATHEWS, George H. B., 54 slaves, page 174

MATHEWS, Willaim, 108 slaves, page 184

MATTHEWS, George W., 266 slaves, page 168

MCELMORE, Moses, 77 slaves, page 199B

MCGEEHEE, William E., 74 slaves, page 155

MERRIWETHER, C. N.?, 56 slaves, page 262

MERRIWETHER, Charles L., 76 slaves, page 173

MERRIWETHER, James B., 118 slaves, page 171

MERRIWETHER, Nicholas, 51 slaves, page 171B

MERRIWETHER, Nicholas L., 91 slaves, page 170

MERRIWETHER, Thomas, 116 slaves, page 172

MERRIWETHER, Wm. L., 56 slaves, page 262

MICON, B. H., Prarie Plantation, J. N. Simmons overseer, 67 slaves, page 182

MICON, Benj., 54 slaves, page 178B

MICON?, Marta, 51 slaves, page 204

MITCHEL, J. N.?, 82 slaves, page 207

MITCHELL, J. C. B., Idolwilde Plantation, overseed byE. G. Hubbard, 52 slaves, page 176

MITCHELL?, owned by, Sunnyside Plantation, overseed by D. W. Lawson, 60 slaves, page 176B

MONTGOMERY & EUFALA R.R. CO., 113 slaves, page 225B

MURDOCK, Lafayett, 78 slaves, page 205

PICKET, Sarah, 94 slaves, page 226

POLLARD, Charles T., 116 slaves, page 199

RAWLS, Frederick, 52 slaves, page 211B

RIVES, Dr. W. H., 187 slaves, page 231B

SAYRE, P. T., 64 slaves, page 206

SCOTT, J. B.?, 58 slaves, page 206B

SMITH, A. G., 72 slaves, page 205B

SONT? & SONT? R. R. Co.(Alabama), 189 slaves, page 222

STONE, Barton, 83 slaves, page 161

TARVER, B. F., 84 slaves, page 141

TAY, Thos., Lois? Ivy? Plantation, 69 slaves, page 212B

TAYLOR, F. M., Line Creek Plantation, overseed by E. Oliver, 55 slaves, page 175B

TAYLOR, James H., 60 slaves, page 279

TAYLOR, Rosana, 77 slaves, page 151B

TAYLOR, T. B., Line Creek Plantation, overseed by L. H. Jackson, 81 slaves, page 175

THOMAS, George, 105 slaves, page 160

VANDIVER, W. P., 78 slaves, page 132B

WARE, R. J., T. P. B., 78 slaves, page 194B

WARE, Robert J., 134 slaves, page 201

WARE?, Robt. J.?, 134 slaves, page 229

WATTS, Thos. H., 179 slaves, page 227B

WILLIAMS, J. M., 71 slaves, page 167

WILSON, A. A., 59 slaves, page 230B

YOUNG, Est. of Bernard, 76 slaves, page 177B

ZIMMERMAN, Thos. J., 61 slaves, page 193B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ALFORD, 292, 39, 15, 38, 24, 13

ARRINGTON, 270, 79, 41, 52, 50, 22

ASHLEY, 285, 56, 22, 53, 36, 19

BARNETT, 755, 123, 41, 98, 76, 31

BARTON, 533, 53, 0, 62, 35, 0

BELLINGER, 53, 18, 18, 10, 10, 10

BIBB, 353, 142, 71, 107, 99, 49

BRENARD, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BROWN, 27013, 1585, 147, 1321, 878, 98

BUNCH, 203, 8, 4, 7, 5, 3

BUTHAY?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CAFFEY, 59, 50, 39, 43, 43, 34

CALLOWAY, 227, 40, 20, 27, 23, 12

CALOWAY, 66, 3, 0, 6, 2, 0

CANTELLOU, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CARTER, 7164, 478, 55, 397, 263, 33

CHAMBLESS, 38, 15, 0, 9, 9, 0

COLE, 2004, 177, 19, 167, 108, 15

CRAYNE, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DILLAHAY, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DILLIARD, 35, 5, 0, 5, 3, 0

EASON, 203, 30, 0, 30, 20, 0

ELSBERRY, 18, 15, 6, 9, 9, 5

EUBANKS, 127, 19, 4, 16, 9, 3

FRAZIER, 967, 103, 27, 81, 66, 19

FREEMAN, 2493, 167, 32, 136, 95, 20

GILMER, 230, 93, 46, 62, 55, 32

GILMORE, 520, 50, 5, 53, 24, 2

GORDEN, 265, 19, 5, 12, 10, 3

GRANT?, 2331, 146, 19, 134, 78, 11

GREGG, 224, 28, 1, 20, 15, 1

GUNTER, 162, 38, 12, 25, 22, 10

HAIN, 8, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0

HALE, 569, 87, 5, 57, 42, 2

HENRY, 2782, 263, 23, 236, 151, 16

HOLMES, 2804, 174, 20, 122, 82, 7

HOLT, 816, 86, 31, 72, 53, 18

HOOD, 561, 92, 2, 82, 61, 2

HOY?, 40, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HUNTER, 2838, 378, 19, 306, 230, 9

JONES, 27193, 2497, 173, 2125, 1451, 111

JUDGE, 102, 24, 6, 21, 18, 4

JUDKINS, 121, 99, 71, 76, 75, 60

LOMAX, 264, 15, 4, 11, 10, 3

LUCAS, 997, 106, 47, 71, 63, 27

MANNING, 448, 76, 8, 80, 51, 7

MARKS, 255, 42, 8, 32, 24, 3

MARTIN, 5318, 437, 43, 377, 270, 29

MATHEWS, 1877, 243, 16, 195, 151, 12

MATTHEWS, 801, 88, 17, 68, 46, 8

MCELMORE, 12, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1

MCGEEHEE, 13, 6, 0, 5, 5, 0

MERRIWETHER, 126, 49, 8, 36, 36, 6

MICON, 17, 14, 3, 13, 13, 3

MITCHEL, 1563, 134, 4, 120, 82, 4

MITCHELL, 4089, 512, 67

MURDOCK, 139, 16, 11, 17, 10, 8

PICKET, 148, 36, 3, 31, 25, 2

POLLARD, 631, 80, 15, 41, 31, 8

RAWLS, 200, 19, 0, 20, 11, 0

RIVES, 166, 15, 6, 13, 11, 5

SAYRE, 9, 6, 5, 5, 5, 4

SCOTT, 8407, 565, 72, 473, 322, 49

SMITH, 29087, 2290, 146, 1820, 1286, 93

SONT?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

STONE, 1070, 121, 16, 94, 72, 13

TARVER, 171, 62, 3, 45, 42, 3

TAY, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

TAYLOR, 11696, 934, 176, 800, 547, 114

THOMAS, 11418, 1092, 122, 888, 631, 88

VANDIVER, 17, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0

WARE, 998, 212, 46, 146, 123, 38

WATTS, 1134, 173, 23, 136, 120, 17

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2335, 267, 2095, 1417, 194

WILSON, 10819, 789, 47, 706, 476, 41

YOUNG, 6185, 407, 24, 356, 246, 15

ZIMMERMAN, 71, 36, 6, 24, 23, 4

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