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MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, March 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with these largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Madison County, Alabama (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 30) reportedly includes a total of 14,573 slaves. This transcription includes 114 slaveholders who held 30 or more slaves in Madison County, accounting for 5,836 slaves, or about 40% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 1,003 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. This transcription was made from the Ancestry on line images of the microfilm. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a “B” being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. The slaveholders shown here were reported as in the following districts within the County: up to page 478, City of Huntsville; 482 to503, Northwestern Division; 506 to 516B, Southeastern Division; 518 to534B, Southwestern Division; 536 and above, District Number 1. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term “County” is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Alabama in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves nationwide. The transcriber noticed the following such slaves named in this county: 102 male black Charles Bradford, held by Daniel M. Bradford on page 473; 110 male black Oliver Moore (?), held by Harriet A. Barnard on page 475; 110 male black James B. Turner, held by Elisha Bell on age 531B; and 100 male black Nick, held by Wm. M. Otey on page 550. The enumerator also gave the names of three slaves under 100 who were handicapped: 18 year old male black John, listed as idiotic, held by Charles H. Patton on page 521; 60 female black Dorcas, blind and held by Charles H. Patton on 521B; and 20 female black Charlotte, listed as idiotic and held by A. H. Barkley on 522. On page 548B, the enumerator wrote, ”43 sent to Kansas by Darnell Townsend, right prior to June 1st”. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Madison County population included 11,685 whites, 192 “free colored” and 14,573 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population of Madison County had increased almost 33% to 15,527, while the “colored” population only increased just under 7% to 15,740. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 95,283 whites, more than an eight fold increase, but the 1960 total of 10,309 “Negroes”was only about 50% more than what it had been 100 years before.) [These figures do not consider the affect of any County boundary changes that may have occurred.] Where did the freed slaves go who did not stay in this county? Dallas, Montgomery and Mobile counties in Alabama all saw increases in the colored population between 1860 and 1870, so that could be where some of these Alabama freed slaves went. Between 1860 and 1870, the Alabama colored population increased by 37,000, to 475,000, a 17% increase. Where did freed Alabama slaves go if they did not stay in Alabama? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Madison County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 to 545,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ALLISON, Jno., 40 slaves, page 509B

BAKER, William, 30 slaves, page 542

BARKLEY, A. H., 53 slaves, page 522

BATTLE, Joseph D., 54V95

BEALEY, Jas. A., 80 slaves, page 482B

BEIRNE, Geo. P., 80 slaves, page 515B

BELL, Elisha, 37 slaves, page 531B

BETTS, Edward C., 34 slaves, page 485

BETTS, Elisha F., 46 slaves, page 520B

BLANKENSHIP, Willis, George McBride Agt., 30 slaves, page 556B

BONE, Rev. M. H., 39 slaves, page 538B

BRADFORD, Hamilton G., 42 slaves, page 483

BRICKLE, R. C., 33 slaves, page 514B

CARTER, John W., 33 slaves, page 497B

CARTER, T. W.? Agt, 71 slaves, page 539

CLEMENS, James, 85 slaves, page 520

COLLIER, Charles E., 53 slaves, page 522B

CORNELIUS, Wm. M., 41 slaves, page 496

DAVIS, Dewit C., 37 slaves, page 487

DAVIS, W. C., Agt., 36 slaves, page 544

DONALSON, L., 57 slaves, page 547B

DONEGAN (see Patton Donegan & Co.)

EASON, Alcuen?, 34 slaves, page 494

EPLINGER, A. J., 30 slaves, page 515

FARISS, Jno. L., 31 slaves, page 559

FENNELL, Isham J., 74 slaves, page 519

FLETCHER, John J., 46 slaves, page 528B

FORD, Mrs. M. & 1 other, 69 slaves, page 556

FORD, Z., Agt., 40 slaves, page 548

GRIFFITH, Benj., Hal? Kenney Agt., 36 slaves, page 546

GURLEY, Jno., 33 slaves, page 511

HALL, Adam, Estate of, 35 slaves, page 475

HAMBRECK, J. L.?, 42 slaves, page 540B

HAMMOND, Ferdinand, 124 slaves, page 490

HARRIS, Jas. N., 30 slaves, page 550

HARRIS, S. W., 56 slaves, page 514B

HIGGINBOTHAM, Jas., Agt., 35 slaves, page 547

HOBBS, J. H., 43 slaves, page 516B

HOLDING, Richard, 107 slaves, page 524

HOLDING, William, 89 slaves, page 528B

HORTON, Geo. Estate of, 30 slaves, page 530B

HUMPHREY, W. D., 43 slaves, page 557

HUMPHREYS, D. C., 57 slaves, page 507

JAMES, Richard, 44 slaves, page 518

JONES, Alex. P., 106 slaves, page 483

JONES, G. F., 46 slaves, page 543B

JONES, G. W., 49 slaves, page 555B

JORDAN, Dr. F., 133 slaves, page 536B

KELLEY, J.? H., Agt., 30 slaves, page 546B

KELLEY, R, J., 76 slaves, page 551

KING, John D., 34 slaves, page 492B

LANIER, J. A. & Bros., 74 slaves, page 528

LANMAN, James, 42 slaves, page 530

LARKIN & SULLIVAN, 33 slaves, page 499B

LEACY?, Alex. H., 49 slaves, page 531

LIGHTFOOT, Clary, 35 slaves, page 484B

LOVE, Joel B., 30 slaves, page 506

MARTIN, J. H. & G. L., 43 slaves, page 554

MASTEN, Frank, 77 slaves, page 555

MASTEN, Frank T., 74 slaves, page 503

MATKIN, William, 44 slaves, page 534

MAYHEW, Mrs. E. & 1 other, 32 slaves, page 554B

MCCALLEY, Thos., 98 slaves, page 552B

MCCALLY, Thomas S., 47 slaves, page 533

MCCLUNG, Margaret, 30 slaves, page 509B

MCDONALD, Archibald, 54 slaves, page 534

MILLER, Jas., 38 slaves, page 541

MOORE, Benj. T., 95 slaves, page 487B

MOORE, D. L.?, 56 slaves, page 512B

NUCKOLS, S. O., 31 slaves, page 551B

PATTON, Charles H., W. T. Clark overseer, 31 slaves, page 521

PATTON, Charles H., Calvin Hunt overseer, 40 slaves, page 532

PATTON, Charles H., for others, 88 slaves, page 521B

PATTON DONEGAN & Co., 147 slaves, page 558

PATTON, Martha L., H. Sandefer overseer, 70 slaves, page 521

POPE, Eliza E., 39 slaves, page 502B

POWER, Wm., 46 slaves, page 513

PRUIT, Valentine G., 47 slaves, page 495

RAGLAND, G. O., J. W. Scruggs Exr? Of, 63 slaves, page 525

ROBINSON, C. P.?, 49 slaves, page 509

ROBINSON, John, 64 slaves, page 493

ROPER, Wm. M., 32 slaves, page 554

RUSSELL, Martha J., 52 slaves, page 531B

SALE, Dudley, 39 slaves, page 489B

SANFORD, Wm., 66 slaves, page 482

SCRUGGS, James H., in trust for three minors, 32 slaves, page 478

SEAY, John, 40 slaves, page 489

SLEDGE, O. D., 85 slaves, page 552

SMITHER, Daniel, 35 slaves, page 488B

STEELE, Eliza (and others), 43 slaves, page 513

STEGER, Benj., 31 slaves, page 537B

STRONG, Lucy J., 30 slaves, page 499

STUDDART, Wm. J., 43 slaves, page 485B

SULLIVAN (see Larkin & Sullivan)

THOMAS, Charles, 57 slaves, page 556B

THOMAS, John, Agent, 60V49

THOMPSON, Wiley, 45 slaves, page 499B

TIMMONS, Estate, D. C. Humphreys for, 93 slaves, page 527

TIMS, , William, 30 slaves, page 546B

TONEY, Calif. Heirs of, 30 slaves, page 530

TONEY, Edmund, S. Bondurant overseer, 37 slaves, page 525

TONEY, Margaret, 33 slaves, page 529B

TOWNSEND, Exeline, 44 slaves, page 548

TOWNSEND, Mary S., 56 slaves, page 501B

TOWNSEND, Saml. Estate, Saml. C. Townsend Admr., 60 slaves, page 501

TOWNSEND, Saml. C., 39 slaves, page 500B

TURNER, Harry B., 30 slaves, page 527B

TURNER, Henry P.?, 45V98B

TURNER, Jas. B., 40 slaves, page 484

VINCENT, C. ?., 37 slaves, page 511

WARD, Samuel, 102 slaves, page 518

WHITAKER, Alex & 1 other, 33 slaves, page 549

WHITE, Thomas, 34 slaves, page 516B

WHORTON, George R., 38 slaves, page 494

WIGGINS, Richard., 79 slaves, page 534B

WINSTON, Isaac W., 35 slaves, page 492

 

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

 

ALLISON, 476, 64, 20, 45, 40, 18

BAKER, 3314, 241, 12, 214, 140, 12

BARKLEY, 91, 8, 0, 6, 5, 0

BATTLE, 900, 196, 39, 129, 112, 29

BEALEY, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BEIRNE, 30, 30, 29, 20, 20, 19

BELL, 4784, 485, 18, 388, 280, 13

BETTS, 197, 41, 14, 47, 33, 11

BLANKENSHIP, 34, 7, 4, 8, 5, 4

BONE, , 92, 14, 10, 15, 12, 9

BRADFORD, 911, 153, 38, 132, 94, 25

BRICKLE, 6, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2

CARTER, 7164, 478, 15, 397, 263, 9

CLEMENS, 230, 20, 7, 24, 15, 6

COLLIER, 632, 91, 19, 87, 60, 17

CORNELIUS, 145, 22, 12, 23, 17, 9

DAVIS, 13725, 1122, 36, 1004, 698, 25

DONALSON, 71, 5, 1, 5, 3, 1

DONEGAN, 33, 24, 23, 20, 20, 19

EASON, 203, 30, 8, 30, 20, 6

EPLINGER, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

FARISS, 9, 5, 2, 3, 3, 2

FENNELL, 80, 16, 2, 15, 8, 0

FLETCHER, 896, 95, 20, 82, 67, 14

FORD, 2562, 234, 32, 209, 140, 19

GRIFFITH, 377, 36, 1, 21, 16, 0

GURLEY, 64, 14, 10, 13, 12, 9

HALL, 5875, 578, 25, 510, 383, 19

HAMBRECK, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HAMMOND, 632, 71, 31, 50, 41, 23

HARRIS, 11315, 1052, 60, 910, 648, 43

HIGGINBOTHAM, 71, 10, 0, 11, 7, 0

HOBBS, 355, 47, 16, 46, 38, 14

HOLDING, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HORTON, 745, 173, 25, 140, 121, 21

HUMPHREY, 261, 54, 3 7, 42, 38, 25

HUMPHREYS, 134, 8, 2, 5, 5, 1

JAMES, 3993, 344, 12, 321, 210, 8

JONES, 27193, 2497, 159, 2125, 1451, 120

JORDAN, 2359, 248, 46, 225, 149, 40

KELLEY, 499, 50, 15, 50, 36, 13

KING, 4979, 681, 13, 545, 406, 8

LANIER, 260, 79, 17, 57, 52, 13

LANMAN, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

LARKIN, 129. 29, 0, 27, 22, 0

LEACY?, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

LIGHTFOOT, 257, 48, 16, 38, 31, 11

LOVE, 1109, 93, 13, 97, 56, 5

MARTIN, 5318, 457, 20, 377, 270, 15

MASTEN, 29, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1

MATKIN, 11, 11, 11, 9, 9, 9

MAYHEW, 57, 7, 1, 5, 5, 0

MCCALLEY, 32, 26, 25, 21, 21, 21

MCCALLY, 15, 3, 1, 2, 2, 1

MCCLUNG, 24, 4, 2, 4, 3, 1

MCDONALD, 899, 137, 7, 108, 78, 6

MILLER, 6577, 346, 36, 292, 190, 23

MOORE, 8698, 1016, 126, 917, 635, 82

NUCKOLS, 27, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

PATTON, 675, 144, 50, 145, 100, 36

POPE, 989, 165, 29, 121, 97, 23

POWER, 81, 3, 2, 5, 1, 1

PRUIT, 85, 22, 6, 25, 15, 6

RAGLAND, 213, 41, 19, 30, 30, 17

ROBINSON, 8046, 459, 51, 430, 270, 42

ROPER, 217, 42, 12, 33, 31, 10

RUSSELL, 1487, 143, 13, 145, 102, 11

SALE, 78, 6, 0, 7, 5, 0

SANFORD, 378, 65, 6, 44, 33, 5

SCRUGGS, 338, 63, 36, 69, 52, 30

SEAY, 107, 14, 4, 8, 8, 3

SLEDGE, 240, 76, 26, 61, 53, 24

SMITHER, 28, 10, 9, 8, 8, 7

STEELE, 610, 223, 23, 167, 152, 14

STEGER, 40, 7, 7, 7, 5, 5

STRONG, 573, 93, 47, 66, 47, 32

STUDDART, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

SULLIVAN, 482, 46, 15, 38, 28, 10

THOMAS, 11418, 1092, 14, 888, 631, 10

THOMPSON, 8826, 783, 30, 757, 494, 23

TIMMONS, 127, 24, 22, 21, 18, 18

TIMS, 39, 3, 0, 8, 2, 0

TONEY, 259, 87, 41, 62, 57, 29

TOWNSEND, 656, 92, 38, 86, 54, 21

TURNER, 5742, 620, 59, 479, 352, 40

VINCENT, 450, 42, 10, 32, 25, 7

WARD, 2525, 271, 32, 230, 166, 22

WHITAKER, 513, 32, 1, 22, 15, 0

WHITE, 9657, 693, 32, 622, 406, 21

WHORTON, 112, 46, 13, 33, 32, 9

WIGGINS, 753, 93, 33, 82, 63, 27

WINSTON, 853, 141, 5, 111, 85, 2

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