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DALLAS COUNTY, ALABAMA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, May 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Dallas County, Alabama, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Dallas County, Alabama census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Dallas County, Alabama census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Dallas County, Alabama in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Dallas County, Alabama (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 29) reportedly includes a total of 25,760 slaves, which ranks as the highest total in the State and the 4th highest in the U.S. in 1860. This transcription includes 81 slaveholders who held 70 or more slaves in Dallas County, accounting for 9,006 slaves, or 35% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 1,199 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the district where the slaves were enumerated and the first census page of that district on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Alabama in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves nationwide. The transcriber noticed the following such slaves named in this county: male Hampton, age 102 held by Bentley at page 27B; female Juno, age 100, the only slave of E. J. Bower at page 37B; female Molly, age 100 held by agent Boothe at page 51; female Dafney, age 100 held by J. E. Kennedy at page 87B; female Lucy and male Jack, both age 100 and held by agent Evans on page 65B; male African Paul, listed as a manumitted slave in two places on page 151 in connection with holder John Phillips; female Sarah, age 100 held by W. W. Lang, Sr. at page 114B; female Sallie, age 101 held by Westley Plattenburgh at page 149; female Jimmy, age 100 held by R. H. Boykin at page 118B; female Patty, age 100 also held by Boykin at page 117B; female Silva, age 100 held by Robt. Boykin at page 113; and male Sam, age 100 held by Hunter at page 168B. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Dallas County population included 7,785 whites, 80 "free colored" and 25,760 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population of Dallas County had increased almost 10% to 8,552, while the "colored" population increased almost 24% to 32,152. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 23, 952 whites, almost a three fold increase, but the 1960 total of 32,687 "Negroes"was only about 26% more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) Where did the freed slaves go who did not stay in this county? Dallas, Montgomery and Mobile counties in Alabama all saw increases in the colored population between 1860 and 1870, so that could be where some of these Alabama freed slaves went. Between 1860 and 1870, the Alabama colored population increased by 37,000, to 475,000, a 17% increase. Where did freed Alabama slaves go if they did not stay in Alabama? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Dallas County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 to 545,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ADAMS, John, 98 slaves, Athens, page 19

BENTLEY, John, 155 slaves, Burnsville?, page 27B

BIBB, G. B., 103 slaves, Carlowville, page 58B

BIBB, Geo. B., 81 slaves, Pleasant Hill, page 103

BISSELL, H. C., 82 slaves, Portland, page 114

BLAND, E., 89 slaves, Orrville, page 85B

BOOTHE, T. D. Agt., 90 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 51

BOYKIN, B. Est., 141 slaves, Portland, page 118B

BOYKIN, James, 242 slaves, Portland, page 116

BOYKIN, R. H., 161 slaves, Portland, page 117B

BOYKIN, Robt. D., 104 slaves, Portland, page 112B

CADE, Est. E. E., 85 slaves, Union, page 169B

CALHOUN, James M., 168 slaves, Carlowville, page 57

CARSON, T. B. Est., 150 slaves, Pence, page 92B

CLEVELAND, C. H., 89 slaves, River, page 131B

COLEMAN, A. M., 106 slaves, Richmond, page 126

CRAIG, J. W., 80 slaves, Orrville, page 87

CRAIG, J. D., 89 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 37

CRAIG, R. G., 96 slaves, Harrels, page 69B

ECHOLS, Est. J., 72 slaves, Union, page 166

EDWARDS, N. W., 92 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 47

ELLERBE, A. W., 132 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 52

GALE, Geo. W., 97 slaves, Union, page 162B

GAYLE, R. D., 96 slaves, Harrels, page 70B

GILL, T. M., 111 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 40

GRIFFIN, Lonzo, 79 slaves, Selma, page 145

HARRELL, W. F., 99 slaves, Harrels, page 63

HATCHER, Robt. S., 77 slaves, River, page

HILL, S.? M., 180 slaves, River, page 134

HUNTER, John S., 138 slaves, Pleasant Hill, page 104B

HUNTER?, J. S. & L., 147 slaves, Union, page 168B

JOBY?, T. E., 95 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 56

JOHNSON, Mrs., 114 slaves, Burnsville?, page 32

JOHNSTON, A. J., 95 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 37B

JONES, Est., 87 slaves, Union, page 167B

JONES, J. H., 95 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 55B

JONES, W. A. Est., 75 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 55

KING, Wm. T., 157 slaves, Old Town, page 81

LANG, W. W. Sr., 133 slaves, Portland, page 114B

LEE, Martin, 116 slaves, Carlowville, page 59B

LONG, D.? M., 74 slaves, Pence, page 90

MARSHALL, Dr. Hugh, 76 slaves, Selma, page 153

MARTIN, A. J., 79 slaves, Orrville, page 85

MATHEWS, Tho. M., 143 slaves, River, page 129

MATTHEWS, J. E., 284 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 34B

MATTHEWS, Verginia, 76 slaves, Athens, page 18

MINTER, Wm T., 81 slaves, Old Town, page 82B

MOLETT, J. U.?, 76 slaves, Harrels, page 71B

MOLETT, W. P., 351 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 48

MOORE, Louis J., 130 slaves, Summerfield, page 157B

MOORE, R. C., 71 slaves, Harrels, page 61B

NIXON?, John [and some others?], 97 slaves, Woodlawn, page 173

PEGUES, Eliza H. and 2 others, 94 slaves, Athens, page 23

PERINE, E. M., 88 slaves, Pleasant Hill, page 105B

PERINE, E. M., 85 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 38B

PHILLIPS, Geo. C., 102 slaves, Selma, page 146B

PHILLIPS, John B., 93 slaves, Selma, page 151

PITTS, Joseph Agt., 77 slaves, Pence, page 97

PLATTENBURGH, Wesley, 107 slaves, Selma, page 149

RIVES, J. T. Agt., 131 slaves, Portland, page 111B

RIVES, Thomas, 71 slaves, Portland, page 113

SALTMARSH, A., 300 slaves, Cahaba Town, page 42B

SMITH, Jas. & Bat.?, 88 slaves, Selma, page 151B

SMITH, R. W., 74 slaves, Portland, page 111

SMITH, Wm. S., 83 slaves, River, page 130B

SMYLY, D. C. & S., 78 slaves, Pleasant Hill, page 101B

STEWART, Geo. C., 96 slaves, Old Town, page 78B

STOUTENBROUGH, A., 144 slaves, Richmond, page 123

STROTHER, J. P., 75 slaves, Athens, page 20B

TIPTON, Mrs. E. H., 115 slaves, Old Town, page 80

TODD, Lewis J.?, 118 slaves, Athens, page 19B

ULMER, H. P., 84 slaves, Pleasant Hill, page 109

UNDERWOOD, Est. Green four slave holders, 97 slaves, Pleasant Hill, page 108

VASSER, L. B., 179 slaves, Pleasant Hill, page 107

VAUGHAN, F. 120 slaves, Lexington, page 72

WALKER, G. J. S., 73 slaves, River, page 127B

WALKER, L. M. H., 100 slaves, Pleasant Hill, page 106

WALKER, Thomas, 102 slaves, Pence, page 95B

WATTS, E. T., 107 slaves, River, page 127

WOOLEY, T. T. Agt., 98 slaves, Pence, page 95

YOUNG, H., 77 slaves, Athens, page 14

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ADAMS, 4295, 384, 28, 334, 232, 18

BENTLEY, 207, 14, 1, 11, 7, 0

BIBB, 353, 142, 9, 107, 99, 5

BISSELL, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BLAND, 594, 13, 5, 7, 6, 3

BOOTHE, 127, 10, 2, 7, 6, 2

BOYKIN, 399, 146, 36, 92, 78, 19

CADE, 191, 61, 22, 41, 39, 17

CALHOUN, 560, 119, 5, 78, 61, 4

CARSON, 617, 80, 14, 70, 52, 9

CLEVELAND, 242, 62, 32, 58, 47, 23

COLEMAN, 4329, 483, 74, 414, 291, 51

CRAIG, 877, 164, 89, 119, 103, 60

ECHOLS, 247, 65, 6, 45, 27, 1

EDWARDS, 3741, 355, 48, 296, 203, 24

ELLERBE, 55, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0

GALE, 268, 9, 0, 8, 5, 0

GAYLE, 75, 25, 11, 17, 16, 7

GILL, 591, 79, 34, 75, 49, 21

GRIFFIN, 2464, 255, 25, 207, 152, 15

HARRELL, 350, 51, 21, 43, 33, 12

HATCHER, 397, 112, 87, 85, 83, 71

HILL, 6675, 646, 82, 41, 373, 78

HUNTER, 52838, 378, 135, 306, 230, 95

JOBY?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

JOHNSON, 33402, 2048, 175, 1783, 1130, 105

JOHNSTON, 2186, 172, 5, 158, 113, 3

JONES, 27193, 1497, 218, 2125, 1451, 127

KING, 4979, 681, 131, 545, 406, 90

LANG, 282, 55, 19, 49, 30, 6

LEE, 6357, 644, 48, 490, 371, 20

LONG, 1828, 190, 9, 143, 104, 6

MARSHALL, 1756, 135, 29, 113, 85, 18

MARTIN, 5318, 457, 53, 377, 270, 32

MATTHEWS, 801, 88, 18, 68, 46, 8

MINTER, 205, 57, 47, 44, 41, 33

MOLETT, 19, 14, 13, 11, 9, 9

MOORE, 8698, 1016, 109, 917, 635, 66

NIXON?, 524, 50, 0, 44, 25, 0

PEGUES, 137, 9, 1, 20, 6, 0

PERINE, 25, 19, 19, 15, 15, 15

PHILLIPS, 1974, 300, 63, 252, 182, 43

PITTS, 649, 110, 2, 77, 57, 1

PLATTENBURGH, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

RIVES, 166, 15, 2, 13, 11, 1

SALTMARSH, 36, 32, 31, 17, 17, 16

SMITH, 29087, 2290, 219, 1820, 1286, 129

SMYLY, 18, 16, 16, 11, 11, 11

STEWART, 3648, 285, 17, 222, 154, 10

STOUTENBROUGH, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

STROTHER, 392, 47, 28, 20, 19, 10

TIPTON, 126, 29, 22, 26, 24, 17

TODD, 703, 95, 16, 57, 41, 6

ULMER, 51, 30, 18, 19, 19, 10

UNDERWOOD, 444, 122, 23, 87, 77, 14

VASSER, 74, 39, 37, 20, 20, 20

VAUGHAN, 480, 69, 6, 50, 46, 5

WALKER, 8492, 827, 148, 727, 474, 104

WATTS, 1134. 173, 65, 136, 120, 38

WOOLEY, 63, 11, 3, 11, 7, 1

YOUNG, 6185, 407, 40, 356, 246, 23

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