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CLARKE COUNTY, ALABAMA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, March 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with these largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Clarke County, Alabama (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 28) reportedly includes a total of 7,436 slaves. This transcription includes 68 slaveholders who held 27 or more slaves in Clarke County, accounting for 3,190 slaves, or about 43% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 577 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. This transcription was made from the Ancestry on line images of the microfilm. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held and the first census page on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a “B” being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term “County” is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Alabama in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves nationwide. The transcriber noticed the following such slaves named in this county: 100 year old female black Susan, held by John C. Days on page 447D; 100 year old male black David, held by Sandy E. Roan on page 449B; and 106 year old male black London, held as the only slave of James C. Savage on page 472B. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Clarke County population included 7,599 whites, 14 “free colored” and 7,436 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population of Clarke County had decreased almost 7% to 7,098, while the “colored” population stayed about the same at 7,565. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 12,987 whites, about 71% more than in 1860, while the 1960 total of 13,014 “Negroes”was about 75% more than in 1860.) [These figures do not consider the affect of any County boundary changes that may have occurred.] Where did the freed slaves go who did not stay in this county? Dallas, Montgomery and Mobile counties in Alabama all saw increases in the colored population between 1860 and 1870, so that could be where some of these Alabama freed slaves went. Between 1860 and 1870, the Alabama colored population increased by 37,000, to 475,000, a 17% increase. Where did freed Alabama slaves go if they did not stay in Alabama? States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Clarke County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 to 545,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

BARNES, Caroline O., 72 slaves, page 462

BECKHAM, William L., 72 slaves, page 468B

BETTIS, Mary, 28 slaves, page 445B

BRACY, Louvena S., 36 slaves, page 474B

BRYANT, James, 56 slaves, page 450B

BURROUGHS, Thomas, 41 slaves, page 464B

CARLETON, Alexander, William C. Jordan agent for, 48V38

CLEVELAND, James, 38 slaves, page 460B

CLEVELAND, Stephen B., 42 slaves, page 461

COX, Matthew, 28 slaves, page 467

CREAGH, Gerard W. & Wilie, WOOTEN, Kittie & Thomas, James Odom guardian for, 54 slaves, page 463B

CUNNINGHAM , John, 40 slaves, page 436B

DANZY, William, 31 slaves, page 443

DAVIS, James A., 69 slaves, page 447C

DAYS, John C., 72 slaves, page 447D

DEWETT, O. S., 31 slaves, page 448

DUBOSE, Abel H., 36 slaves, page 446

DUBOSE, Peter, 49 slaves, page 470B

FINCH, John M., 29 slaves, page 476

FLINN, Eliza A. 103 slaves, page 449B

FORBES, Gordon C., William H. Waldrom agt for, 40 slaves, page 451B

FORWARD, Samueal, 50 slaves, page 471B

FOSTER, Benjamin C., 29 slaves, page 454

FRIGGS, W. S., 35 slaves, page 475

GOODWIN, Norphlet, 44 slaves, page 458

HARRIS, John M., 39 slaves, page 449B

HARRIS, Nancy, 75 slaves, page 459B

HEARIN, Isabella V., 30 slaves, page 452B

HEARIN, James H., William J. Hearin admr of, two minors, 38 slaves, page 451B

HEARIN, William J., 56 slaves, page 452

HOPE, John, 35 slaves, page 442B

HOWZE?, James A., 65 slaves, page 467

JAMES, Lorenzo, 103 slaves, page 450

JAMES, Robert D., 138 slaves, page 477B

JONES, Starkey, William A. Snodgrass agent for, 55 slaves, page 441B

JORDAN, John A., 62 slaves, page 469B

KIMBALL, Isham, 30 slaves, page 470

LEE, David, 37 slaves, page 458B

MARSHAL, Edward, 35 slaves, page 447

MATHERSON, Flora, 31 slaves, page 477B

MATHERSON, Wm. A., 50 slaves, page 477

MAY , Lewis, 37 slaves, page 433B

MCCORGUODALE?, Malcom?, 27 slaves, page 467

MITCHELL, Charles (minor), John A. Jordan guar of, 59 slaves, page 469B

MORRIS, William A., 55 slaves, page 464

NOBLE, Joseph, 61 slaves, page 453

ODOM, James, 58 slaves, page 463

ODOM, James T., 32 slaves, page 459

ODOM, Matilda F., 27 slaves, page 461

PALE, Dempsey, 32 slaves, page 477

PAYNE, Lavinia, 95 slaves, page 446B

POPE, Lewis, 35 slaves, page 467B

PORTIS, John W., 35 slaves, page 461B

POWELL, Joseph B., 35 slaves, page 472B

PUGH, Elijah, 30 slaves, page 454B

RHODES, James, Joseph McNider agt for, 41 slaves, page 437

RIVERS, Richard, 36 slaves, page 462

RIVERS, Thomas __?, 30 slaves, page 476

ROAN, Sandy E., 36 slaves, page 449B

SAWYER, S.? L., William Cherry agt for, 55 slaves, page 473

SAWYER, William T., 30 slaves, page 465

SAWYER, William T. Admr, 29 slaves, page 466

SCRUGGS, William L., 35 slaves, page 434B

SMITH, Neal, 30 slaves, page 451

THORNTON, Eli S., 50 slaves, page 433

TURNER, Chaste E., 31 slaves, page 445

WILLIAMS, Horace R., 65 slaves, page 435

WILSON, Joshua L., 52 slaves, page 475

WOOTEN, (see Creagh & Wooten)

 

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

 

BARNES, 2165, 167, 17, 139, 103, 11

BECKHAM, 92, 20, 11, 15, 14, 7

BETTIS, 67, 35, 29, 29, 29, 24

BRACY, 116, 21, 11, 14, 12, 7

BRYANT, 2129, 227, 9, 156, 109, 7

BURROUGHS, 90, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1

CARLETON, 35, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0

CLEVELAND, 242, 62, 1, 58, 47, 1

COX, 2288, 238, 22, 180, 134, 16

CREAGH, 27, 26, 8, 19, 18, 6

CUNNINGHAM , 1016, 242, 5, 155, 133, 4

DANZY, 8, 3, 2, 1, 1, 1

DAVIS, 13725, 122, 60, 1004, 698, 39

DAYS, 76, 5, 0, 1, 0, 0

DEWETT, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DUBOSE, 252, 152, 9, 96, 86, 6

FINCH, 231, 47, 11, 35, 31, 9

FLINN, 87, 27, 8, 22, 17, 6

FORBES, 176, 19, 6, 14, 10, 3

FORWARD, 9, 4, 1, 1, 1, 1

FOSTER, 2611, 408, 19, 291, 242, 17

FRIGGS, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

GOODWIN, 778, 131, 2, 124, 88, 1

HARRIS, 11315, 1052, 14, 910, 648, 11

HEARIN, 4, 4, 3, 1, 1, 1

HOPE, 148, 12, 0, 12, 7, 0

HOWZE?, 15, 10, 0, 7, 6, 0

JAMES, 3993, 344, 32, 321, 210, 17

JONES, 27193, 2497, 32, 2125, 1451, 20

JORDAN, 2359, 248, 6, 225, 149, 4

KIMBALL, 108, 13, 4, 19, 12, 4

LEE, 6357, 644, 13, 490, 371, 9

MARSHAL, 816, 71, 7, 60, 44, 7

MATHERSON, 14, 4, 0, 3, 3, 0

MAY, 1116, 233, 10, 193, 151, 8

MCCORGUODALE?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MITCHELL, 4089, 512, 7, 400, 320, 4

MORRIS, 3112, 245, 9, 190, 134, 6

NOBLE, 268, 53, 16, 40, 39, 12

ODOM, 211, 36, 14, 31, 24, 10

PALE, 8, 0, 0, 3, 0, 0

PAYNE, 1603, 96, 1, 92, 67, 1

POPE, 989, 165, 8, 121, 97, 8

PORTIS, 46, 33, 7, 24, 22, 6

POWELL, 2420, 298, 2, 232, 183, 2

PUGH, 343, 73, 41, 50, 46, 33

RHODES, 707, 73, 8, 60, 44, 4

RIVERS, 820, 118, 15, 74, 66, 10

ROAN, 156, 5, 0, 3, 1, 0

SAWYER, 328, 46, 3, 24, 21, 3

SCRUGGS, 338, 63, 4, 69, 52, 4

SMITH, 29087, 2290, 30, 1820, 1286, 14

THORNTON, 1504, 204, 14, 144, 105, 11

TURNER, 5742, 620, 18, 479, 352, 16

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2335, 57, 2095, 1417, 47

WILSON, 10819, 789, 20, 706, 476, 12

WOOTEN, 299, 17, 0, 15, 9, 0

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