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Haplogroup Q

Scientists believe that haplogroup Q originated in Central Asia, and radiated outward. A recent study has identified this

haplogroup among Western Siberian tribes such as the Kets, Evenks and Selkups. Although it does not appear among the

Saami, it has been found among Scandinavian samples - according to an unpublished study cited by Dr. David Faux on his

Shetland Isles DNA Project web site.

Haplogroup Q may have entered Scandinavian populations through prehistoric mixing. Or it may have entered in historic

times during the centuries that the Vikings explored the White Sea area north of Finnmark. Viking adventures in Bjarmaland

- modern day Permia, which is adjacent to Western Siberia - have been recorded not only in the Icelandic sagas, but also in

factual accounts. King Ottar, a Norwegian who visited King Alfred's court, regaled the Anglo-Saxon monarch with his tales

of whale-hunting and exploration in the far north.

There was cultural diffusion between the Vikings and the Siberian peoples. The Vikings merged some elements of Siberian

shamanism into their own religious practices. Viking Berserkers even adapted the shamanistic use of hallucinogenic

mushrooms to warfare, employing them as an intoxicant to give them courage in battle. The ancient Siberians also

pioneered a method of riverine navigation that became one of the mainstays of Viking longship culture.

An exchange of genetic inheritance between the two peoples was not only likely, but inevitable.

However, since at least one subclade of Haplogroup Q - Haplogroup Q3 - occurs widely among Native Americans,

many DNA genealogists must be careful in attributing the Q haplotypes of British-Americans solely to a European origin.

Nonetheless, Haplogroup Q has been found in the Shetland Isles and elsewhere in Scotland, so a European origin cannot

be discounted.

Q Haplotype #1

The haplotype below has few matches. Nonetheless, they fit the pattern for a haplotype with an Asiatic origin that was

incorporated into a Scandinavian population. This haplotype most likely entered Britain with the Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 12 28 24 10 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

Gotland, Sweden 4.88
Taiwan [Han] .21

Q Haplotype #2

The highest frequencies in the Old World for this haplotype occur among the Mongolian Hazara of Pakistan, and in Bulgaria

and Iran. Additional matches occur in Turkey, Hungary, Germany and Poland.

This haplotype unquestionably originated in Central Asia and spread westward. Its presence in Hungary, Poland and

Bulgaria could be due to the invasions of the Huns, the Mongols or the Magyars. The Magyar and Mongol periods

occurred too late, however, to have brought this haplotype into Britain. Since Q appears in Scandinavia, this haplotype

could have come to Britain with the Norse Vikings. Yet the match patterns below do not support that thesis.

Considering the high frequency of matches in Iran, this haplotype may also have come to Britain with Indo-Iranian nomads.

These would include the Sarmatians - who served as cavalry at Hadrian's Wall - or the Alans - who mixed with the Huns

and the Goths, settled widely in Brittany, and most likely joined the Normans in their conquest of England.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 29 22 10 15 13 - -

Geographical Locale

Pakistan [Hazara] 4.35
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 3.00
Isfahan, Iran 2.08
Bulgaria 1.64
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Tehran, Iran 1.25
Brussels, Belgium .80
Turkey .63
Budapest, Hungary .51
Munster, Westphalia .51
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18

Q Haplotype #3

This geographical match table below was prepared for a "Border Reiver" haplotype that had no close matches in

Ysearch for which a specific haplogroup had been either verified by a SNP test or estimated by FTDNA.

It bears some features of an R1b haplotype - and may still be one. However, it also exhibits features of a Q haplotype,

such as a DYS390 marker value of 23 and a DYS391 marker value of 10. Most importantly, both the "Border Reiver"

haplotype from which this partial haplotype was drawn, and the vast majority of its closest matches in the YHRD

database, have unusually high DYS385a,b marker values. This feature is rare for R1b, but typical for haplogroup Q.

Finally, the match pattern itself forces the issue. The highest frequencies below fall in East Asia, Scandinavia and

the Caucasus.  This is a combination that would make little sense for an R1b haplotype, but readily corresponds to

the migration pattern that has recently been hypothesized for haplogroup Q.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the Norse Vikings, or with Roman troops

and settlers of Western Asian or Eastern European descent.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 - 23 10 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

Highland Papua New Guinea 10.34
Caucasus [Ingushian] 4.17
Uppsala, Sweden 3.51
Java, Indonesia 3.13
Oregon [Hispanic-American] 2.38
Blekinge, Sweden 2.38
Emilia Romagna, Italy 2.25
Cheonan, South Korea 2.22
Chengdu, China [Han] 1.82
Macau [Han Chinese] 1.75
Lyon, France 1.60
Graz, Austria 1.54
Munster, Westphalia 1.53
Rostock, Mecklenburg 1.47
Nagoya, Japan 1.45
Switzerland 1.34
Okinawa, Japan 1.15
Central Portugal 1.08
Caucasus [Armenian] 1.00
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Ireland .93
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Barcelona, Catalonia .89
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Bulgaria .82
Brussels, Belgium .80
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Cologne, Westphalia .74
East Timor .72
New York [Hispanic-American] .67
Argentina [European] .66
Berlin, Brandenburg .55
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Tuscany, Italy .46
London, England .40
Chemnitz, Saxony .37
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Leipzig, Saxony .15

Q Haplotype #4

The partial haplotype below scored four matches in South American Indian samples, and one in a sample of U.S.

Hispanics. Although this match table was prepared for two "Border Reivers" of largely British American origin,

it clearly suggests that their paternal ancestors were Native Americans and not directly from the Old World at all.

This haplotype may also belong to Q3.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 - 22 10 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

Argentina [Guarani Amerindian] 4.41
Louisiana [Hispanic-American] 3.33
Bolivia [Amerindian] 1.64

Q Haplotype #5

The haplotype below differs from the "Old Norse" Q Modal Haplotype by 1 step on DYS19, which is 14 where it should be 13.

The single match falls in Norway, and clearly suggests a Norse ancestry.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 29 23 10 12 13 13 17

Geographical Locale

Central Norway 2.08

Q Haplotype #6

The only match for this haplotype occurs in an East Asian sample, rather than in South or Central Asia.

This raises the possibility of a Native American origin for this haplotype, given that it was prepared for a

"Border Reiver" descendant from the rural United States.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 30 24 10 15 14 - -

Geographical Locale

Manila, Phillipines [Tagalog, Cebuano] 1.32

Q Haplotype #7

The match for the haplotype below was prepared for a Border Reivers participant whose surname has a Norse

origin. Considering that the closest matches in YHRD fall exclusively in Scandinavia, we can conclude that this

individual's ancestors definitely came to Britain with the Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 12 28 23 10 14 13 13 19

Geographical Locale

Sweden [Swedish] .50