or new profiles
Barber of Sheffield & Matlock Bank, B.W.
Bentley of Buxton, William
Bentley of Buxton, J.R. Board
of Buxton, W.P.
Booth of Eckington & Worksop, B.W.
Botham of Derby, Matlock & Brighton, F.J.
of Derby, Charles
C. Bradshaw of Bakewell & Manchester, James
Brennen of Derby, Britannia's
Electric Portraits of Chesterfield & Ilkeston, Robert
& Robert Bull of Ashbourne, John Burton & Sons of
Leicester, Birmingham & Derby, Levi
Cartwright of Hillstown, Scarcliffe, Charles F. Dalton of
Chesterfield, Chesterfield Studios of
Studios of Derby, Wallace Fidler of Chesterfield, J.H.
Gaunt of Chesterfield, Gervase Gibson & Sons of
Nottingham & Derby, Pollard Graham of Derby, Alfred
of Aberystwyth & Derby, H.P. Hansen of Ashbourne, A.T. Harpur
of Derby, Albert
Heath of Clay Cross, J.J.
of Leeds & Buxton, William Housley
of Bakewell, William
Alfred Hudson of Chapel-en-le-Frith, R.F. Hunter of Buxton, William Johnson
& Arthur Farnsworth
of Long Eaton, Thomas
Frost of Derby, R.F. Hunter of Buxton, Jerome Limited
of Derby, Richard
Keene Junr. of Derby & Burton-on-Trent, D.C. Latham
of Buxton, Laurence
Studios of Leicester,
Derby et al., Pat
Laurie of Derby, G.S. Ledsham of Buxton, Rudolf
Leonhardt of Eckington, Nottingham & Leicester, William Leuchars
of Chesterfield, Henry
Lord of Huddersfield &
Martin of Melbourne, Walter
Mayell of Melbourne, William Milton of Derby, The
Portland Photo Co. of Derby, Alfred
Rippon of Chesterfield, George Renwick of
Burton-on-Trent, John Roberts of Derby, Thomas
of Derby, F.W.
& S.E. Robinson of Long Eaton, J. & J.S. Simnett of
Smith of Derby, John
Stringfellow of Chesterfield & Sheffield, C.S. Swift
of Derby, G.H.
Chapel-en-le-Frith, E.M. Treble of Derby, Paul Turner
of Chesterfield, Bernard Warner
of Chesterfield, John Alfred
Warwick of Derby, George White
of Liverpool & Chesterfield, Samuel Whiting of Chesterfield and Levi Yeomans
Many thanks to the following for new contributions: Diane Hicklin, David Lamb, Paul Clarke, Lynne Tedder, Valerie Bailey, Sandy Barrie, Brenda Croome, Bill Addy, Ann Taylor, Roger Vaughan, Ian Leith, Michael Pritchard, Hilary Booth, Jeri Bass, Barbara Ellison, Cynthia Maddock, Dick Hudson, Picture the Past, Mike Briggs, Gail Durbin, Nigel Aspdin, Terry Nolan, John Bradley
Other sections on this site:
Temporary Working Pages: Page 1 | Page 2
Victorian & Edwardian Portrait Photo Collection
... and if you're interested in old photographs, visit Photo-Sleuth, my irregular series of articles about old photographs, photographers and their subjects
- A Background to Studio Photography in England
Richard Beard, a successful coal merchant, and patent speculator, opened England’s first photographic portrait studio in London on 23rd March 1841. Beard had recognised the advantages of securing a monopoly in the production of daguerreotype portraits in England. In June 1841, he concluded negotiations with Miles Berry, Louis Daguerre’s patent agent in England, and purchased the patent rights to the daguerreotype process. By the end of July 1841, Richard Beard had become the sole patentee of the daguerreotype process in England and Wales, and thus had a virtual monopoly in the production of photographic portraits using Daguerre’s method.
Until the patent rights of British Patent No 8194 expired on 14th August 1853, any person who wanted to legally carry out the art of daguerreotype portrait photography on a commercial basis had to apply to Richard Beard, to either purchase the right of patent in a prescribed geographical area or to purchase a licence to work the process in a particular town or city.
In June 1841, Richard Beard claimed to have “disposed of licences for Liverpool, Brighton, Bristol, Bath, Cheltenham and Plymouth”. The first provincial photographic studio in England was opened on 31st July 1841 at Plymouth. Over the next five months licensed daguerreotype studios appeared in Bristol, Cheltenham, Liverpool, Nottingham, Brighton, Bath and Manchester.
On 9 November 1842, John Johnson (1813-1871) an American daguerreotypist and associate of Richard Beard obtained the patent rights for the daguerreotype process for the counties of Lancashire, Cheshire and Derbyshire.
On 10 November 1842, Edward Holland obtained a licence from Richard Beard to use the daguerreotype process in certain specific parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. Under the agreement, Holland was to pay Beard a total sum of £500, made up of an initial payment of £200 and two further instalments of £150 each. In return, Holland was granted "the exclusive licence power and privilege within districts, towns and places in several counties of York and Derby therein after mentioned i.e. the whole of a certain district situated in the County of York ... and also within the several towns of Buxton and Bakewell in the County of Derby." [Indenture, dated 10 November 1842]
Under the terms of the agreement, Beard was to supply Holland with "frame cases and metallic plates and other apparatus" necessary for the making of daguerreotypes. In addition to the licence fee of £500, Holland was also required to pay to Beard, 15% of all his takings from the sale of daguerreotype portraits.
Edward Holland is the first recorded example of an itinerant photographer. He intended to travel across Yorkshire and Derbyshire, setting up temporary studios in various places. After making the down payment of £200, Holland made daguerreotype portraits at Doncaster Race Course, Bradford and Halifax, but he experienced difficulty in paying the remainder of the licence fee. In July 1843, Richard Beard began legal proceedings against Holland to recover the outstanding £300 and he was forced to abandon his photographic career before he even reached Derbyshire. [Court of Chancery Proceedings, Beard v Holland 1843].
In the summer of 1843, John Johnson operated a temporary daguerreotype portrait studio in Victoria Street, next to the Athenaeum [Derbyshire Courier, 8 July 1843, page 2, col 7], although by around September he had moved on to set up another studio in Blackpool. In February 1844, an un-named photographer was operating a daguerreotype studio in Victoria Street, Derby [Derby Mercury, 28 February 1844, page 2, col 3], and was still in business the following month. By September 1844, however, Thomas Roberts announced that he had acquired the daguerreotype licence for Derbyshire and would be taking portraits at Johnson's former studio in Victoria Street [Derby Mercury, 25 September 1844, page 2, col 6]. He continued as a daguerreotype artist for the next 12 months, but later concentrated more on his bookselling business.
The end of Beard's daguerreotype patent in August 1853 and the introduction of Archer's "patent free" wet collodion process at around the same time resulted in an explosion of photographic activity in Derbyshire.
- The First Photographic Portrait Studios in the British Isles, 1841 to
1855, by Bernard &
Pauline Heathcote, publ. by the authors, 2002
All original newspaper sources and much of the other content were taken from "A Faithful Likeness". It is a magnificent piece of research and anyone interested in the early history of photography in the British Isles should consult the Heathcotes' book. Copies are available from Bernard & Pauline Heathcote, 27 Plough Lane, Lowdham, Nottinghamshire, NG14 7AT, England.
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